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  News From the National Science Foundation
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Key: Meeting M      Journal J      Funder F

Showing releases 776-800 out of 914.

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Public Release: 26-Jun-2015
Nature Communications
A 'hydrothermal siphon' drives water circulation through the seafloor
Vast quantities of ocean water circulate through the seafloor, flowing through the volcanic rock of the upper oceanic crust. A new study by scientists at UC Santa Cruz, published June 26 in Nature Communications, explains what drives this global process and how the flow is sustained.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Tim Stephens
University of California - Santa Cruz

Public Release: 25-Jun-2015
Physiology & Behavior
Exercising early in life yields rewards in adult years
What impact can exercise done early in life have on the propensity for exercising during the adult years? Researchers at the University of California, Riverside did experiments on mice in the lab to find out. They found that early-age exercise in mice has positive effects on adult levels of voluntary exercise in addition to reducing body mass -- results that may have relevance for the public policy debates concerning the importance of physical education for children.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Iqbal Pittalwala
University of California - Riverside

Public Release: 25-Jun-2015
Ecological Applications
Some forestlands cool climate better without trees, Dartmouth-led study finds
Forests worldwide are increasingly used to store carbon as a way to slow climate change, but a Dartmouth-led study finds that some wooded areas may be more valuable without trees, allowing the cleared landscape to reflect rather than absorb the sun's energy. In other words, it's better to have snow-covered ground act as a natural mirror if you want to use some forest lands to cool the climate.
National Science Foundation

Contact: John Cramer
Dartmouth College

Public Release: 25-Jun-2015
Backward-moving glacier helps scientists explain glacial earthquakes
New insight into glacier behavior will improve the reliability of models that predict future sea-level rise in a warming climate.
UK Natural Environment Research Council, US National Science Foundation, Climate Change Consortium of Wales and Thales UK

Contact: Kevin Sullivan
Newcastle University

Public Release: 25-Jun-2015
Corals are already adapting to global warming, scientists say
Some coral populations already have genetic variants necessary to tolerate warm ocean waters, and humans can help to spread these genes, a team of scientists from The University of Texas at Austin, the Australian Institute of Marine Science and Oregon State University have found.
National Science Foundation, Australian Institute of Marine Science

Contact: Christine Sinatra
University of Texas at Austin

Public Release: 24-Jun-2015
Nature Materials
Research findings point way to designing crack-resistant metals
Discoveries by an ASU engineering research team about the causes of stress-corrosion cracking in metal alloys could help prevent failure of critical infrastructure systems such as pipelines that transport water, fossil fuels and natural gas, as well as operating systems for nuclear power generation facilities and the framework of aircraft.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Joe Kullman
Arizona State University

Public Release: 24-Jun-2015
Physical Review Letters
Spintronics advance brings wafer-scale quantum devices closer to reality
University of Chicago researchers have made a crucial step toward nuclear spintronic technologies. They have gotten nuclear spins to line themselves up in a consistent, controllable way, and they have done it using a high-performance material that is practical, convenient, and inexpensive.
Air Force Office of Scientific Research, National Science Foundation, Knut & Alice Wallenberg Foundation, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Sweden's National Supercomputer Center

Contact: Steve Koppes
University of Chicago

Public Release: 24-Jun-2015
International Education Data Mining Society's annual meeting
Challenging negative stereotypes to narrow the achievement gap
A writing intervention linked to improved academic performance among girls and minorities may work by triggering a sense of belonging, helping to ease the students' anxiety, say Columbia researchers. They are the first to apply text-mining techniques to analyze the content of experimental essays showing that some students do better in school when asked to write about values important to them.
National Science Foundation, Columbia's Office of the Provost

Contact: Kim Martineau
Columbia University

Public Release: 24-Jun-2015
ACS Nano
Giving atoms their marching orders
Building self-assembled 'molecular straws' from bis-urea macrocycles, Linda Shimizu of the University of South Carolina has developed a new nanotube system that can be used to directly compare single-file diffusion dynamics with Fickian diffusion dynamics. She and co-author Russ Bowers of the University of Florida use hyperpolarized xenon-129 NMR to study gas transport dynamics in two highly homogeneous nanotubes, one with a narrow-bore, hollow interior that can accommodate xenon gas atoms only in single file.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Steven Powell
University of South Carolina

Public Release: 24-Jun-2015
IEEE Power & Energy Society General Meeting
Distributed technique for power 'scheduling' advances smart grid concept
Researchers have developed a new technique for 'scheduling' energy in electric grids that moves away from centralized management by tapping into the distributed computing power of energy devices. The approach advances the smart grid concept by coordinating the energy being produced and stored by both conventional and renewable sources.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Matt Shipman
North Carolina State University

Public Release: 23-Jun-2015
Cell Transplantation
Stem cell injections improve diabetic neuropathy in animal models
Rats modeled with diabetic neuropathy were randomly assigned to BM-MSC or saline injection 12 weeks after diabetes modeling to investigate whether local transplantation could attenuate or reverse experimental DN. The study provided the first evidence that intramuscular injected BM-MSCs migrated to nerves and increased angiogenic and neurotrophic factors associated with blood vessel growth, aiding the survival of nerves. Results suggested that BM-MSC transplantation restored both the myelin sheath and nerve cells in sciatic nerves.
National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation-Emergent Behavior of Integrated Cellular Systems

Contact: Robert Miranda
Cell Transplantation Center of Excellence for Aging and Brain Repair

Public Release: 23-Jun-2015
Green Chemistry
Biomanufacturing of CdS quantum dots
A team of Lehigh University engineers have demonstrated a bacterial method for the low-cost, environmentally friendly synthesis of aqueous soluble quantum dot nanocrystals at room temperature.
National Science Foundation's Division of Emerging Frontiers in Research and Innovation, Lehigh University's Faculty Innovation Grant and Collaborative Research Opportunity Grant programs

Contact: Jordan Reese
Lehigh University

Public Release: 23-Jun-2015
How will cold-loving Antarctic fish respond to warming ocean waters?
Climate change will be a real shock to Antarctic fishes' physiological systems, says Northeastern professor William Detrich. With a new NSF grant, he will study how rising ocean temperatures will affect the development of the embryos of these fish and the growth of juveniles after hatching.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Jessica Caragher
Northeastern University

Public Release: 23-Jun-2015
Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Old-school literature search helps ecologist identify puzzling parasite
A months-long literature search that involved tracking down century-old scientific papers and translating others from Czech and French helped University of Michigan ecologist Meghan Duffy answer a question she'd wondered about for years.
National Science Foundation, U-M's Undergraduate Research Opportunities Program

Contact: Jim Erickson
University of Michigan

Public Release: 23-Jun-2015
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
The secret weapons of cabbages: Overcome by butterfly co-evolution
An international team of researchers has used the power of genomics to reveal the mechanisms of an ancient and ongoing arms-race between butterflies and plants, played out in countless gardens around the world as green caterpillars devour cabbage plants. The study not only provides striking support for co-evolution, but also provides fundamentally new insights into its genetic basis in both groups of organisms.
National Science Foundation, Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation, Academy of Finland, Swedish Research Council, Max Planck Society

Contact: Hanna Heidel-Fischer
Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology

Public Release: 22-Jun-2015
Nature Geoscience
Sudden shift in 'forcing' led to demise of Laurentide ice sheet
The massive Laurentide ice sheet that covered Canada during the last ice age initially began shrinking through calving of icebergs, and then abruptly shifted into a new regime where melting on the continent took precedence, ultimately leading to the sheet's demise. This is important, because it may provide a clue to how ice sheets on Greenland and Antarctica may respond to a warming climate.
National Science Foundation, NASA

Contact: David Ullman
Oregon State University

Public Release: 22-Jun-2015
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Genetic study of 'co-evolution' could provide clues to better food production
In 1964, renowned biologists Peter Raven and Paul Erhlich published a landmark study that introduced the concept of co-evolution. Now, an international team of researchers led by the University of Missouri and Stockholm University has used genomics to analyze the co-evolution theory and identified the mechanisms responsible for this phenomenon. Scientists believe that understanding how co-evolution works could help provide clues for producing heartier plants and food for a growing global population.
National Science Foundation, Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation, Academy of Finland

Contact: Jeff Sossamon
University of Missouri-Columbia

Public Release: 22-Jun-2015
Fat, sugar cause bacterial changes that may relate to loss of cognitive function
A study indicates that both a high-fat and a high-sugar diet, compared to a normal diet, cause changes in gut bacteria that appear related to a significant loss of 'cognitive flexibility,' or the power to adapt and adjust to changing situations. This effect was most serious on the high-sugar diet, which also showed an impairment of early learning for both long-term and short-term memory.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Kathy Magnusson
Oregon State University

Public Release: 22-Jun-2015
Proceedings of the Royal Society B
Island rodents take on nightmarish proportions
Duke University researchers have analyzed size data for rodents worldwide to distinguish the truly massive mice and giant gerbils from the regular-sized rodents. They found that the furry animals with chisel-like teeth are 17 times more likely to evolve to nightmarish proportions on islands than elsewhere. The results are in keeping with an idea called the 'island rule,' which previous studies claimed didn't apply to rodents.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Robin Ann Smith
Duke University

Public Release: 22-Jun-2015
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
IU biologists find mistletoe species lacks genes found in all other complex organisms
IU scientists have discovered the first known instance of a plant or animal lacking several key genes involved in energy production in cells.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Kevin Fryling
Indiana University

Public Release: 22-Jun-2015
Journal of Theoretical Biology
Model could help counteract poisoning from popular painkiller
New research could help reverse deadly side effects caused by excessive doses of the drug acetaminophen, the major ingredient in Tylenol and many other medicines. Duke University researchers have developed a mathematical model of acetaminophen metabolism based on data from rats. The findings suggest that giving patients glutamine -- a common amino acid in the body -- alongside the standard antidote for acetaminophen overdose could prevent liver damage and boost the body's ability to recover.
National Science Foundation, National Institutes of Health

Contact: Robin Ann Smith
Duke University

Public Release: 22-Jun-2015
Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History
Study takes close look at formidable camel spider jaws
For the first time, researchers have created a visual atlas and dictionary of terms for the many strange features on the fearsome-looking jaws of a little known group of arachnids. Called camel spiders, baardskeerders [beard-cutters], sun spiders, wind scorpions, and other colorful names, Solifugae are an order of arachnids that are neither spiders nor scorpions. In research out today, scientists present the first comprehensive analysis of jaw morphology across Solifugae.
National Science Foundation, JRS Biodiversity Foundation, Lund University, AMNH Collections Study Grant, AMNH Theodore Roosevelt Memorial Fund, Ernst Mayr Travel Grant

Contact: Kendra Snyder
American Museum of Natural History

Public Release: 22-Jun-2015
Physical Review Letters
Destructive power of bubbles could lead to new industrial applications
Cavitation bubbles can kill fish and damage boat propellers. Virginia Tech researcher say learning more about them could harness that power for industrial uses, like safer cleaning processes.
National Science Foundation, Virginia Tech Institute of Critical Technology and Applied Science

Contact: Eleanor Nelsen
Virginia Tech

Public Release: 22-Jun-2015
Scientific Reports
Iowa State engineers develop micro-tentacles so tiny robots can handle delicate objects
Iowa State University's Jaeyoun Kim and his research group have developed microrobotic tentacles that can be the hands and fingers of small robots designed to safely handle delicate objects. The engineers describe their micro-tentacles in the journal Scientific Reports.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Jaeyoun (Jay) Kim
Iowa State University

Public Release: 22-Jun-2015
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
California's wildflowers losing diversity in face of warmer, drier winters
Fifteen years of warmer, drier winters are affecting California's wildflower diversity.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Kat Kerlin
University of California - Davis

Showing releases 776-800 out of 914.

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