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  News From the National Science Foundation
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NSF Funded News

Key: Meeting M      Journal J      Funder F

Showing releases 776-800 out of 899.

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Public Release: 21-Dec-2015
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Normal weather drives salt marsh erosion
Coastal wetlands are in retreat in many locations around the globe -- raising deep concerns about damage to the wildlife that the marshes nourish and the loss of their ability to protect against violent storms. The biggest cause of their erosion is waves driven by moderate storms, not occasional major events such as Hurricane Sandy, researchers from Boston University and the United States Geological Survey now have shown.
National Science Foundation, US Geological Survey

Contact: Kira Jastive
Boston University

Public Release: 21-Dec-2015
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Methane emissions in Arctic cold season higher than expected
The amount of methane gas escaping from the ground during the long cold period in the Arctic each year and entering Earth's atmosphere is likely much higher than estimated by current climate change models. Far more methane is escaping from Arctic tundra during the cold months -- when the soil surface is frozen -- as well as from upland tundra, than prevailing assumptions and climate modelers previously believed.
National Science Foundation, NASA, US Department of Energy

Contact: Beth Chee
San Diego State University

Public Release: 21-Dec-2015
Nature Chemistry
Simple physical mechanism for assembly and disassembly of structures inside cells
For the first time, scientists have demonstrated a simple charge-based mechanism for regulating the formation and dissolution of liquid-like structures that lack outer membranes inside cells. The research is a first step in deciphering how these poorly-understood structures function in many kinds of reactions within cells, and also how they may have evolved.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Barbara Kennedy
Penn State

Public Release: 18-Dec-2015
Magnetic nanoparticle chains offer new technique for controlling soft robots
Researchers have developed a technique that uses chains of magnetic nanoparticles to manipulate elastic polymers in three dimensions, which could be used to remotely control new 'soft robots.'
National Science Foundation

Contact: Matt Shipman
North Carolina State University

Public Release: 18-Dec-2015
PLOS Genetics
Bacteria battle: How one changes appearance, moves away to resist the other
Two types of bacteria found in the soil have enabled scientists at Texas A&M AgriLife Research to get the dirt on how resistance to antibiotics develops along with a separate survival strategy. The study, published in the journal PLOS Genetics this month, identifies an atypical antibiotic molecule and the way in which the resistance to that molecule arises, including the identity of the genes that are responsible, according to Dr. Paul Straight, AgriLife Research biochemist.
National Science Foundation, Robert A. Welch Foundation

Contact: Kathleen Phillips
Texas A&M AgriLife Communications

Public Release: 18-Dec-2015
Developmental Cell
Branching out: Engineers reveal mechanisms of complex organ structures
Princeton researchers have observed the artistry of developing lungs unfold in a petri dish and have arrived at a surprising conclusion about the forces that shape it.
National Science Foundation, National Institutes of Health, the David and Lucile Packard Foundation, the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, the Camille and Henry Dreyfus Foundation, and Susan G. Komen for the Cure

Contact: John Sullivan
Princeton University, Engineering School

Public Release: 18-Dec-2015
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Coastal marshes more resilient to sea-level rise than previously believed
Rising seas threaten coastal marshes worldwide. But a new Duke study finds marshes are more resilient than previously believed. Elevated levels of atmospheric CO2 boost plant biomass production, allowing marshes to trap more sediment and generate more organic soil. This may elevate the threshold rate of relative sea-level rise at which marsh drowning is initiated by up to 60 percent and partially offset the effects of reduced sediment delivery and accelerating sea-level rise.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Tim Lucas
Duke University

Public Release: 18-Dec-2015
Stroke recovery in mice improved by Ambien, Stanford study shows
Mice that had strokes rebounded significantly faster if they received low doses of a popular sleeping aid, according to researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine.
National Institutes of Health, Bernard and Ronni Lacroute, Russell and Elizabeth Siegelman, National Science Foundation

Contact: Bruce Goldman
Stanford University Medical Center

Public Release: 17-Dec-2015
Land Use Policy
Researchers test sustainable forestry policies on tropical deforestation, logging
New research by a Dartmouth scientist and her colleagues shows that policies aimed at protecting tropical forests in the Congo Basin may unexpectedly lead to increased deforestation and timber production.
National Science Foundation

Contact: John Cramer
Dartmouth College

Public Release: 17-Dec-2015
Scientists manipulate consciousness in rats
Scientists showed that they could alter brain activity of rats and either wake them up or put them in an unconscious state by changing the firing rates of neurons in the central thalamus, a region known to regulate arousal. The study, published in eLIFE, was partially funded by the National Institutes of Health.
National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation, Okawa Foundation for Information and Telecommunications, Alfred P. Sloan Foundation/Mathers Charitable Foundation, Stanford Bio-X, James and Carrie Anderson Fund

Contact: Christopher G. Thomas
NIH/National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke

Public Release: 17-Dec-2015
Scientists peg Anthropocene to first farmers
A new analysis of the fossil record shows that a deep pattern in the structure of plant and animal communities remained the same for 300 million years. Then, 6,000 years ago, the pattern was disrupted--at about the same time that people started farming in North America and populations rose. The research suggests that humans were the cause of this profound change in nature.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Joshua Brown
University of Vermont

Public Release: 17-Dec-2015
The Russell Sage Foundation Journal of the Social Sciences
Study: Safety net fails grandmother caregivers living in severe poverty
The number of grandmothers raising their grandchildren spiked during the Great Recession, but those living in poverty often struggle with a public assistance system not designed to meet their unique needs.
National Science Foundation, Administration for Children and Families, US Department of Health and Human Services

Contact: Deborah Bach
University of Washington

Public Release: 17-Dec-2015
First praying mantis survey of Rwanda uncovers rich diversity
A college student working at The Cleveland Museum of Natural History was lead author on the first formal survey of praying mantises in Rwanda, which revealed a 155 percent increase in praying mantis species diversity for the African country.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Glenda Bogar
Cleveland Museum of Natural History

Public Release: 17-Dec-2015
Agewandte Chemie
Turning rice farming waste to useful silica compounds
'DO NOT EAT.' That's what's marked on the innocuous little packets that contain the most widely known form of precipitated silica. They're used to absorb moisture that could damage new products, and most of us don't think much about them.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Gabe Cherry
University of Michigan

Public Release: 17-Dec-2015
Journal of Experimental Biology
Snake bellies help scientists get a grip
An NSF-funded UC researcher sheds light on how snakes' sharp-edged belly keels improve climbing abilities, which could lead to bio-inspired robotic designs and new methods to prevent snake invasion.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Tom Robinette
University of Cincinnati

Public Release: 17-Dec-2015
A gene for new species is discovered
A University of Utah-led study identified a long-sought 'hybrid inviability gene' responsible for dead or infertile offspring when two species of fruit flies mate with each other. The discovery sheds light on the genetic and molecular process leading to formation of new species, and may provide clues to how cancer develops.
Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Life Sciences Research Foundation, National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation, Mathers Foundation, and others

Contact: Lee J. Siegel
University of Utah

Public Release: 17-Dec-2015
Journal of Applied Ecology
Darwin's finches may face extinction
Mathematical simulations at the University of Utah show parasitic flies may spell extinction for Darwin's finches in the Galapagos Islands, but that pest-control efforts might save the birds that helped inspire the theory of evolution.
National Science Foundation, Sigma Xi, National Institutes of Health, Australian Research Council; University of Utah Global Change and Sustainability Center, American Museum of Natural History

Contact: Lee J. Siegel
University of Utah

Public Release: 17-Dec-2015
Current Biology
Despite poaching, elephants' social networks hold steady
While the demand for ivory has put elephants under incredible pressure from poachers, their rich social networks have remained remarkably steady. That's according to evidence on the grouping patterns among adult female elephants living in northern Kenya over a 16-year period, which show that daughters often step up to take the place of their fallen mothers. The findings are reported in the Cell Press journal Current Biology on Dec. 17.
National Science Foundation, Save the Elephants

Contact: Joseph Caputo
Cell Press

Public Release: 16-Dec-2015
University of Hawaii's data visualization expert to build the top system in the nation
The University of Hawai'i at Mānoa will be home to the best data visualization system in the United States, thanks to a major research infrastructure grant from the National Science Foundation.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Kelli Abe Trifonovitch
University of Hawaii at Manoa

Public Release: 16-Dec-2015
The building blocks of the future
Better, more efficient batteries and photovoltaics. High-performance materials that withstand extreme temperatures and conditions. High-tech devices that require only minimal amounts of energy. There seems to be no limit to the technology we can imagine to solve global problems, improve life in developing countries or enhance our day-to-day activities.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Sonia Fernandez
University of California - Santa Barbara

Public Release: 16-Dec-2015
Journal of Applied Ecology
Making the grade: Certain abandoned ski runs recover better than others
Study finds that graded ski runs show no predictable recovery even 40 years after abandonment. Cleared runs, however, consistently recover.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Jennifer Burt
University of California - Davis

Public Release: 16-Dec-2015
Soil Science Society of America Journal
Will grassland soil weather a change?
There's more to an ecosystem than the visible plants and animals. The soil underneath is alive with vital microbes. They make sure nutrients from dead plant and animal material are broken down and made useable by other plants. This completes the process of nutrient cycling and carbon storage. Scientists are learning more about how important these microbes are. But how do changes in temperature and precipitation levels affect microbes? And will that affect carbon storage?
Department of Energy, National Science Foundation

Contact: Susan Fisk
American Society of Agronomy

Public Release: 16-Dec-2015
2015 AGU Fall Meeting
Number of severe algal blooms in Lake Erie to double, forecast says
By the latter half of this century, toxic algal blooms like the one that cut off drinking water to the city of Toledo in 2014 will no longer be the exception, but the norm, a study suggests.The findings hold implications for hundreds of coastal regions around the world where nutrient runoff and climate change intersect to make toxic algae a problem.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Pam Frost Gorder
Ohio State University

Public Release: 16-Dec-2015
Geophysical Research Letters
Study: Climate change rapidly warming world's lakes
Climate change is rapidly warming lakes around the world, threatening freshwater supplies and ecosystems, according to a study spanning six continents. The study is the largest of its kind and the first to use a combination of satellite temperature data and long-term ground measurements. A total of 235 lakes, representing more than half of the world's freshwater supply, were monitored for at least 25 years.
NASA/Earth Science Division, NASA/Science of Terra, NASA/Aqua, NASA/ROSES, National Science Foundation

Contact: Eric Sorensen
Washington State University

Public Release: 16-Dec-2015
Journal of Experimental Biology
Aphids balance their diets by rebuilding plant amino acids
Aphids survive on an unbalanced diet of plant sap by breaking down all available plant amino acids and rebuilding essential ones.
National Science Foundation, US Department of Agriculture

Contact: Patricia Waldron
Boyce Thompson Institute

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