The researchers recruited 219 women smokers who were highly motivated to quit. Their history of depression was assessed and they were classified as being positive (MDD+) or negative (MDD-) for major depressive disorder. All the women received a standard group-based smoking cessation treatment consisting of 10 90-minute sessions over a seven-week period. At each treatment session, the women reported their symptoms of depression and the number of cigarettes they had smoked since the previous session. Their depression was also assessed one, three, six and 12 months after the treatment period.
Overall, about 85 percent of the women relapsed to smoking within one year following treatment. There were no differences in the overall relapse rate among women with or without a history of depression; however, MDD+ women were more likely to relapse prior to the end of the 7-week treatment. Of those that relapsed, about 60 percent of the MDD+ women relapsed during treatment compared to 40 percent of MDD- women. Additionally, MDD+ women were more likely to drop out of treatment before the quit date compared to MDD- women.
Women who successfully quit smoking reported significant decreases in depressive symptoms from pre- to post-treatment, while those who had relapsed reported an increase in depressive symptoms. However, this change in depressive symptoms during treatment was not predictive of continuous abstinence three, six or 12 months after quitting.
WHAT IT MEANS: Women smokers who are depressed have more difficulties getting through treatment. They may require different treatment approaches that address their depression.
Drs. Michele Levine, Kenneth Perkins, and colleagues published this study in the February 2003 issue of Nicotine and Tobacco Research. It was funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse.
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