"The level of creatine supplementation chosen was 5g per day as this is a level that has previously been shown to increase brain creatine levels. This level is comparable to that taken to boost sports fitness," explains Dr. Caroline Rae who led the research. "Vegetarians or vegans were chosen for the study as carnivores and omnivores obtain a variable level of creatine depending on the amount and type of meat they eat - although to reach the level of supplementation in this experiment would involve eating around 2 kg of meat a day!"
Athletes and fitness fanatics have known that creatine supplementation can increase sports performance and the compound - a close relative of the amino acids - has also been trialed successfully in the treatment of neurological, neuromuscular and atherosclerotic disease. "We know that creatine plays a pivotal role in maintaining energy levels in the brain," says Dr. Rae. "So it was a reasonable hypothesis that supplementing a diet with creatine could assist brain function."
The experiment tested this hypothesis by giving the one group of subjects a creatine supplement and a second group a placebo for six weeks, followed by a six week period with no intake and a final six week period when the control and placebo group were swapped. Intelligence and memory were tested at four points: the start of the trial; the end of the first six week period; and the start and endpoint of the final six week period.
The effect on working memory was tested using a backward digit span test in which the subject has to repeat in reverse order progressively longer verbal random number sequences. Intelligence was tested using Ravens Advanced Progressive Matrices - a methodology commonly used for IQ assessment involving completion of pattern sequences. The test is a well validated measure of general ability with minimal dependence on cultural factors. "Both of these tests require fast brain power and the Raven's task was conducted under time pressure," says Dr. Rae. "The results were clear with both our experimental groups and in both test scenarios: creatine supplementation gave a significant measurable boost to brain power. For example in the digit span test subjects ability to remember long numbers, like telephone numbers, improved from a number length of about 7 to an average of 8.5 digits."
The study shows that increased creatine intake results in improved brain function, similar to effects shown previously in muscle and heart. The results agree with previous observations showing that brain creatine levels correlate with improved recognition memory and reduce mental fatigue. "These findings underline a dynamic and significant role of brain energy capacity in influencing brain performance," says Dr. Rae. "Increasing the energy available for computation increases the power of the brain and this is reflected directly in improved general ability."
A short term boost?
Long term supplementation with creatine has yet to be declared truly safe as there have been reported effects on glucose homeostasis (the regulation of blood sugar levels) and potential subjects with a medical history of diabetes were excluded from the experiment. In addition taking the supplement can have some antisocial effects. "To be frank taking the supplement can make you a considerably less 'fragrant' person," says Dr. Rae. "However creatine supplementation may be of use to those requiring boosted mental performance in the short term - for example university students."
Contact for further information
For more details on this paper, including how to obtain a full copy of the paper and contact details for the paper's author, Dr. Caroline Rae, please contact:
The paper: Oral creatine monohydrate supplementation improves brain performance: a double-blind, placebo controlled, cross-over trial by Caroline Rae, Alison Digney, Sally McEwan and Timothy Bates will be published on FirstCite on Wednesday 13 August 2003 and then as part of Proceedings of the Royal Society: Biological Sciences - Vol. 270, No. 1529 on 22 October 2003.
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