Researchers working in Vietnam have identified a genetic variant that predisposes people to developing a lethal form of tuberculosis (TB), tuberculous meningitis, if they are infected with a strain of TB known as the Beijing strain. The work, described in a study published March 28th in the open-access journal PLoS Pathogens, underlines the importance of studying both sides of the complex host-pathogen interaction and its role in susceptibility to disease.
TB, which is caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis, kills over 2 million people each year. It is estimated that well over 2 million people are infected with M. tuberculosis, though the majority will never show symptoms. Some will develop a latent infection, with symptoms only showing if they become sick or immunocompromised, for example through HIV infection. A small number will develop an active TB infection, usually in their lungs, occasionally progressing to "disseminated TB" - a condition in which failure of the immune system to control the infection allows its spread to other parts of the body.
Some of the risk factors that determine whether individuals develop active TB following exposure are well known; these include HIV infection, malnutrition and smoking. Sarah Dunstan and colleagues from the Wellcome Trust Major Overseas Programme based at the Hospital for Tropical Diseases and the Oxford University Clinical Research Unit (OUCRU), Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam previously identified the link between TB susceptibility and the role of a gene involved in the immune system, known as TLR2, which is important for recognising and initiating the defensive response when the bacterium enters the body.
People with a particular variant of TLR2, commonly found in the Vietnamese population, are particularly susceptible to developing the most severe form of TB, in which the infection spreads to the meninges, the membranes that envelope the brain and the spinal cord. One in three people who develop TB meningitis die, even amongst those who receive hospital treatment.
Now, Caws and her colleagues have shown that the predisposition to developing TB meningitis appears to be strongest in people who carry the variant of TLR2 and who are infected with the specific Beijing strain of TB.
"We are seeing an increasing number of cases of the Beijing strain worldwide, a strain that is becoming more and more resistant to drugs," says Dr Caws.
The World Health Organisation estimates that around 5% of the TB cases in the world are now multi-drug resistant. In people who have multi-drug resistant TB meningitis mortality approaches 100% because there are no effective treatment regimens.
"Our findings are important because they show that we need to look at both the patient's susceptibility to the disease and the genetics of the pathogen that is infecting them at the same time," says Dr Caws. "Many studies have shown a genetic association with disease in one population but the finding has not been repeated in different populations. This might be not only because of ethnic differences in the population, but also because the pathogen populations are different.
"Understanding the mechanisms that influence our susceptibility to infectious diseases may allow us to develop more sophisticated and targeted treatments and vaccines. This is particularly important in this era of emerging 'untreatable' bacterial infections due to antibiotic resistance."
This study was funded by the Wellcome Trust.
PLEASE ADD THIS LINK TO THE PUBLISHED ARTICLE IN ONLINE VERSIONS OF YOUR REPORT: http://www.
CITATION: Caws M, Thwaites G, Dunstan S, Hawn TR, Lan NTN, et al. (2008) The Influence of Host and Bacterial Genotype on the Development of Disseminated Disease with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. PLoS Pathog 4(3): e1000034. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1000034
The Wellcome Trust
T: 020 7611 7329
This press release refers to an upcoming article in PLoS Pathogens. The release is provided by the article authors and/or their institutions. Any opinions expressed in these releases or articles are the personal views of the journal staff and/or article contributors, and do not necessarily represent the views or policies of PLoS. PLoS expressly disclaims any and all warranties and liability in connection with the information found in the releases and articles and your use of such information.
About PLoS Pathogens
PLoS Pathogens (www.plospathogens.org) publishes outstanding original articles that significantly advance the understanding of pathogens and how they interact with their host organisms. All works published in PLoS Pathogens are open access. Everything is immediately available subject only to the condition that the original authorship and source are properly attributed. Copyright is retained by the authors. The Public Library of Science uses the Creative Commons Attribution License.
About the Public Library of Science
The Public Library of Science (PLoS) is a non-profit organization of scientists and physicians committed to making the world's scientific and medical literature a freely available public resource. For more information, visit http://www.