Special National Meeting Edition
April 9, 2008
This issue of the American Chemical Society (ACS) News Service Weekly Press Package (PressPac) is a special edition with selections from scientific presentations scheduled for the ACS' 235th national meeting in New Orleans. Our regular coverage of reports from ACS' 36 major peer-reviewed journals and Chemical & Engineering News will resume with the April 16, 2008, edition.
News Items in This Edition:
- Biochemical signals associated with atherosclerosis may damage other organs
- How sweet it is: "Revolutionary" process points to sugar-fueled cars
- Dr. Mom was right -- and wrong -- about washing fruits and vegetables
- "Black gold agriculture" may revolutionize farming, curb global warming
- Journalists' Resources: ACS Press Releases, Chemistry Glossary
- For Wired Readers: Bytesize Science, a podcast for young listeners; Science Elements: ACS Science News Podcast
Biochemical signals associated with atherosclerosis may damage other organs
EMBARGOED FOR: Wednesday, April 9, 2:00 p.m., Central Standard Time
Many scientists view atherosclerosis, or hardening of the arteries, as a localized disease characterized by the build up of fatty plaques in the arteries, which can eventually cause heart attacks and strokes. Now, in a finding that challenges conventional knowledge, researchers in New York and North Carolina report that plaques formed in arteries are associated with certain harmful chemical reactions that can contribute to damage in the lungs, liver, and other organs.
The findings suggest that the effects of atherosclerosis are more widespread than previously believed, the researchers say. The study could lead to new targets for developing drugs that could help prevent or reduce these chemical changes that appear to accompany heart disease, the number one cause of death in the U.S., according to chemist Rita Upmacis.
Scientists are closing in on the root causes of the disease. One of the more promising lines of research focuses on the body's production of nitrotyrosine, a chemical which has been linked to Alzheimer's, arthritis, cancer, and other disorders.
In the new study, Upmacis and colleagues worked with laboratory mice that have atherosclerosis. Mice that are genetically prone to atherosclerosis and fed a high-fat diet developed high levels of nitrotyrosine in their heart, lung, liver, and kidney. By contrast, mice that were fed regular diets showed no such increase. The rise in nitrotyrosine levels suggests that high-fat diets in animals with atherosclerosis can help trigger nitrotyrosine accumulation in the proteins of various organs, the scientists say. -- MTS
ARTICLE #1 EMBARGOED FOR: Wednesday, April 9, 2:00 p.m.., Central Standard Time
For full-text of press release with high-resolution images:
Rita K. Upmacis, Ph.D.
Weill Medical College of Cornell University
New York, New York 10021
How sweet it is: "Revolutionary" process points to sugar-fueled cars
EMBARGOED FOR RELEASE: Wednesday, April 9, 3:15 p.m., Central Standard Time
Chemists report development of a "revolutionary" process for converting plant sugars into hydrogen, which could be used to cheaply and efficiently power vehicles equipped with hydrogen fuel cells without producing any pollutants. The process involves combining plant sugars, water, and a cocktail of powerful enzymes to produce hydrogen and carbon dioxide under mild reaction conditions.
The new system is the world's most efficient method for producing hydrogen, according to lead researcher Y.-H. Percival Zhang, a biochemical engineer. The new system helps solve the three major technical barriers to the so-called "hydrogen economy," he says. Those roadblocks involve how to produce low-cost sustainable hydrogen, how to store hydrogen, and how to distribute it efficiently.
"This is revolutionary work," says Zhang. "This has opened up a whole new direction in hydrogen research. With technology improvement, sugar-powered vehicles could come true eventually."
While recognized as a clean, sustainable alternative to fossil fuels, hydrogen production is expensive and inefficient. Most traditional commercial production methods rely on fossil fuels, such as natural gas, while innovations like microbial fuel cells still yield low levels of hydrogen. Researchers worldwide thus are urgently looking for better ways to produce the gas from renewable resources.
Zhang and colleagues believe they have found the most promising hydrogen-producing system to date from plant biomass. The researchers also believe they can produce hydrogen from cellulose, which has a chemical formula similar to starch but is far more difficult to break down. -- MTS
ARTICLE #2 EMBARGOED FOR RELEASE: Wednesday, April 9, 3:15 p.m., Central Standard Time
For full-text of press release with high-resolution images:
Y-H. Percival Zhang, Ph.D.
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
Blacksburg, VA 24061
Dr. Mom was right -- and wrong -- about washing fruits and vegetables
EMBARGOED FOR RELEASE: Thursday, April 10, 9:00 a.m., Central Standard Time
Washing fresh fruits and vegetables before eating may reduce the risk of food poisoning and those awful episodes of vomiting and diarrhea. But washing alone -- even with chlorine disinfectants -- may not be enough, according to a new study by researchers in Pennsylvania.
Studies show that certain disease-causing microbes are masters at playing hide-and-go seek with such chemical sanitizers. These bacteria can make their way inside the leaves of lettuce, spinach and other vegetables and fruit, where surface treatments cannot reach. In addition, microbes can organize themselves into tightly knit communities called biofilms that coat fruits and vegetables and protect the bacteria from harm. This kind of bacterial community can harbor multiple versions of infectious, disease-causing bacteria, such as Salmonella and E. coli.
Now, new findings from Brendan A. Niemira and colleagues suggest that irradiation, a food treatment currently being reviewed by the FDA, can effectively kill internalized pathogens that are beyond the reach of conventional chemical sanitizers.
Irradiation exposes food to a source of electron beams, creating positive and negative charges. It disrupts the genetic material of living cells, inactivating parasites and destroying pathogens and insects in food, including E. coli and Salmonella, the scientists say. -- SG
ARTICLE #3 EMBARGOED FOR RELEASE: Thursday, April 10, 9:00 a.m., Central Standard Time
For full-text of press release with high-resolution images:
Brendan A. Niemira
Agricultural Research Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture
Wyndmoor, Pennsylvania 19038
"Black gold agriculture" may revolutionize farming, curb global warming
EMBARGOED FOR RELEASE: Thursday, April 10, 1:30 p.m., Central Standard Time
Fifteen hundred years ago, tribes people from the central Amazon basin mixed their soil with charcoal derived from animal bone and tree bark. Today, at the site of this charcoal deposit, scientists have found some of the richest, most fertile soil in the world. Now this ancient, remarkably simple farming technique seems far ahead of the curve, holding promise as a carbon-negative strategy to rein in world hunger as well as greenhouse gases.
Scientists in Delaware report that charcoal derived from heated biomass has an unprecedented ability to improve the fertility of soil -- one that surpasses compost, animal manure, and other well-known soil conditioners.
They also suggest that this so-called "biochar" profoundly enhances the natural carbon seizing ability of soil. Dubbed "black gold agriculture," scientists say this "revolutionary" farming technique can provide a cheap, straight-forward strategy to reduce greenhouse gases by trapping them in charcoal-laced soil.
"Charcoal fertilization can permanently increase soil organic matter content and improve soil quality, persisting in soil for hundreds to thousands of years," Mingxin Guo and colleagues report. In what they describe as a "new and pioneering" ACS report -- the first systematic investigation of soil improvement by charcoal fertilization -- Guo found that soils receiving charcoal produced from organic wastes were much looser, absorbed significantly more water and nutrients and produced higher crop biomass. The authors say "the results demonstrate that charcoal amendment is a revolutionary approach for long-term soil quality improvement." -- AD
ARTICLE # 4 EMBARGOED FOR RELEASE: Thursday, April 10, 1:30 p.m., Central Standard Time
Mingxin Guo, Ph.D.
Delaware State University
Dover, Delaware 19901
General Chemistry Glossary
For Wired Readers
Bytesize Science, a podcast for young listeners
The American Chemical Society (ACS) Office of Communications has launched Bytesize Science, an educational, entertaining podcast for young listeners. Bytesize Science translates cutting-edge scientific discoveries from ACS' 36 peer-reviewed journals into stories for young listeners about science, health, medicine, energy, food, and other topics. New installments of Bytesize Science are posted every Monday and available without charge. Bytesize Science is now listed as a "new and notable" podcast on iTunes. It is also being recommended by "Podcasting in Education," an organization that encourages educators to embrace podcasts as a classroom tool. The archive includes items on environmental threats to killer whales, a scientific explanation for why some people love chocolate, some unlikely new uses for compact discs, and a hairy tale about "hairy roots." The podcaster for Bytesize Science is Adam Dylewski, an ACS science writer and recent graduate of the University of Wisconsin-Madison with degrees in genetics and science communication.
Science Elements: ACS Science News Podcast
The ACS Office of Communications is podcasting PressPac contents in order to make cutting-edge scientific discoveries from ACS journals available to a broad public audience at no charge. Science Elements includes selected content from ACS's prestigious suite of 36 peer-reviewed scientific journals and Chemical & Engineering News, ACS's weekly news magazine. Those journals, published by the world's largest scientific society, contain about 30,000 scientific reports from scientists around the world each year.
PressPac information is intended for your personal use in news gathering and reporting and should not be distributed to others. Anyone using advance PressPac information for stocks or securities dealing may be guilty of insider trading under the federal Securities Exchange Act of 1934.
The American Chemical Society -- the world's largest scientific society -- is a nonprofit organization chartered by the U.S. Congress and a global leader in providing access to chemistry-related research through its multiple databases, peer-reviewed journals and scientific conferences. Its main offices are in Washington, D.C., and Columbus, Ohio.
Summary: This issue of the American Chemical Society (ACS) News Service Weekly Press Package (PressPac) is a special edition with selections from scientific presentations scheduled for the ACS' 235th national meeting in New Orleans. Our regular coverage of reports from ACS' 36 major peer-reviewed journals and Chemical & Engineering News will resume with the April 16, 2008 edition.
Keywords: Agriculture; Food/Food Science; Business/Economics; Biology; Chemistry/Physics Materials Sciences; Earth Science; Medicine/Health; Technology/Engineering/Computer Science; Energy/Fuel.
CONTENT IS STRICTLY EMBARGOED FOR TIMES AS INDICATED
Please credit ACS by indicating that this research was presented at a meeting of the American Chemical Society.
Science Inquiries: Michael Woods, editor
General Inquiries: Michael Bernstein
202-872-4400 (Washington D.C.)
504-670-5115 (New Orleans, April 6-10)
Note for reporters' use only: For full information about the New Orleans meeting, including full-length press releases on these and other topics, and access to abstracts of more than 9,000 scientific papers and hundreds of non-technical summaries, visit www.eurekalert.org/acsmeet.php. Digital video and audio files of news briefings from the meeting are available at http://portal.
Please cite the American Chemical Society as the source of this information or indicate that the research was presented at a meeting of the American Chemical Society.