Measuring certain types of immune cells may predict the high risk of skin cancer after kidney transplantation, according to a study appearing in an upcoming issue of the Journal of the American Society Nephrology (JASN).
"There are differences in the immune system, and some of these are associated with the development of skin cancer after transplantation," comments Robert Carroll, MD (The Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Woodville, South Australia).
The researchers measured levels of key immune cells in 116 kidney transplant recipients, 65 of whom developed squamous cell skin cancers. "We were hoping to see if there were differences in the immune systems of patients who developed skin cancer after transplantation compared to those who did not develop skin cancer," says Carroll.
The results showed that patients with high levels of an immune cell type called T-regulatory cells, or "Tregs" together with low levels of another type of immune cell, called Natural Killer cells, had risk more than five times higher.
The high risk of skin cancers after kidney transplantation is related to the use of immunosuppressive drugs to prevent rejection. "Squamous cell cancer of the skin affects about 30 percent of kidney transplant patients after ten years of immunosuppression," Carroll explains. "A small number of patients develop multiple skin cancers per year, but there is no laboratory test to determine which transplant recipients will develop multiple skin cancers in the future."
If confirmed by future studies, measuring immune cells could provide a valuable new approach to predicting the risk of skin cancer after kidney transplantation. "If a test can confirm high risk of skin cancer development, this may help clinicians to tailor immunosuppressive regimens for individual patients," says Carroll.
The study was limited to British transplant patients. Well-designed scientific studies will be needed to determine whether the immune system test will apply to other populations of patients around the world, with different immunosuppressive regimens and differing exposure to ultraviolet light.
Study co-authors include David San Segundo, Kevin Hollowood, Teresa Marafioti, Paul N. Harden, Kathryn J. Wood (all of John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, UK), and Taane G. Clark (Wellcome Institute for Human Genetics, Oxford).
Disclosures: The authors reported no financial disclosures.
The article, entitled "Immune Phenotype Predicts Risk for Posttransplantation Squamous Cell Carcinoma," will appear online at http://jasn.asnjournals.org/ on January 28, 2010, doi 10.1681/ASN.2009060669.
The American Society of Nephrology (ASN) does not offer medical advice. All content in ASN publications is for informational purposes only, and is not intended to cover all possible uses, directions, precautions, drug interactions, or adverse effects. This content should not be used during a medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. Please consult your doctor or other qualified health care provider if you have any questions about a medical condition, or before taking any drug, changing your diet or commencing or discontinuing any course of treatment. Do not ignore or delay obtaining professional medical advice because of information accessed through ASN. Call 911 or your doctor for all medical emergencies.
Founded in 1966, the American Society of Nephrology (ASN) is the world's largest professional society devoted to the study of kidney disease. Comprised of 11,000 physicians and scientists, ASN continues to promote expert patient care, to advance medical research, and to educate the renal community. ASN also informs policymakers about issues of importance to kidney doctors and their patients. ASN funds research, and through its world-renowned meetings and first-class publications, disseminates information and educational tools that empower physicians.
AAAS and EurekAlert! are not responsible for the accuracy of news releases posted to EurekAlert! by contributing institutions or for the use of any information through the EurekAlert! system.