Los Angeles, CA (JUNE 13, 2011) -- Nearly everyone can recognize the stereotypical scene of construction workers catcalling women as being sexist, but both men and women tend to overlook the more subtle daily acts of sexism they encounter, according to a recent study from Psychology of Women Quarterly (published by SAGE on behalf of the Society for the Psychology of Women, Division 35 of the American Psychological Association).
Things such as calling women "girls" but not calling men "boys" or referring to a collective group as "guys" are forms of subtle sexism that creep into daily interactions. The study helps not only identify which forms of sexism are most overlooked by which sex, but also how noticing these acts can change people's attitudes.
"Women endorse sexist beliefs, at least in part, because they do not attend to subtle, aggregate forms of sexism in their personal lives," wrote authors Julia C. Becker and Janet K. Swim. "Many men not only lack attention to such incidents but also are less likely to perceive sexist incidents as being discriminatory and potentially harmful for women."
The study goes on to differentiate the way men and women's beliefs change once they become aware of subtle sexism. Women need to "see the unseen," the authors note, to make corrections, whereas men need not only to be aware of the sexist behavior or comments, but also to feel empathy for the women targeted. These results are consistent with other studies which found that empathy is an effective method for reducing racial and ethnic prejudice.
The article "Seeing the Unseen: Attention to Daily Encounters with Sexism as Way to Reduce Sexist Beliefs" in Psychology of Women Quarterly is available free for a limited time at: http://pwq.
An interview with the authors of the article, Julia Becker and Janet Swim, conducted by Dr. Jan D. Yoder, editor of Psychology of Women Quarterly is available at: http://pwq.
Supplemental PowerPoint slides are available at:
Psychology of Women Quarterly (PWQ) is a feminist, scientific, peer-reviewed journal that publishes empirical research, critical reviews and theoretical articles that advance a field of inquiry, brief reports on timely topics, teaching briefs, and invited book reviews related to the psychology of women and gender. The journal publishes information about feminist psychology, body image, violence against women, international gender concerns, sexism, sexuality, physical and mental well being, career development, and more. The journal is the official journal of The Society for the Psychology of Women, Division 35 of the American Psychological Association.
The Society for the Psychology of Women was established in 1973 as Division 35 of the American Psychological Association. The Society is devoted to providing an organizational base for all feminists, women and men of all national origins who are interested in teaching, research, or practice in the psychology of women. Our purpose is to promote feminist scholarship and practice, and to advocate action toward public policies that advance equality and social justice.
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