Cultivars of popular ornamental woody plants that are being sold in the United States as non-invasive are probably anything but, according to an analysis by botanical researchers published in the October issue of BioScience. Tiffany M. Knight of Washington University in St. Louis, Missouri, and her coauthors at the Chicago Botanic Garden write that the claims of environmental safety are in most cases based on misleading demographic evidence that greatly underestimates the plants' invasive potential. What is more, the offspring of cultivars do not usually "breed true" and may be more fecund than their parents, especially if they cross with plants from nearby feral populations.
Many invasive plants were once ornamental cultivars, because the characteristics that the "green" industry looks for are the same ones that make a plant potentially invasive -- being adaptable to wide range of conditions, forming dense stands good for erosion control, and having a long flowering period, for example. In recent years the nursery and horticultural industries have responded by creating cultivars of top-selling plants that produce reduced numbers of viable seed and are advertized as "safe to natural areas." Such cultivars of Japanese barberry, buckthorn, and burning bush are now widely sold, as they avoid bans on growing invasive species.
Yet simple population modeling demonstrates that reductions of even 95 percent in the number of viable seed will leave a long-lived species quite capable of spreading -- and many of the new cultivars do not achieve even that much of a reduction. More sophisticated modeling would likely reveal even stronger invasive potential of the "safe" cultivars. Knight and her co-authors conclude that only completely sterile cultivars can be considered truly safe without further testing, and that other types should be tested for breeding true and having a low growth rate before they are sold as non-invasive.
After noon EDT on 7 October and for the remainder of the month, the full text of the article will be available for free download through the copy of this Press Release available at http://www.
BioScience, published monthly, is the journal of the American Institute of Biological Sciences (AIBS). BioScience publishes commentary and peer-reviewed articles covering a wide range of biological fields, with a focus on "Organisms from Molecules to the Environment." The journal has been published since 1964. AIBS is an umbrella organization for professional scientific societies and organizations that are involved with biology. It represents nearly 160 member societies and organizations.
The complete list of peer-reviewed articles in the October 2011 issue of BioScience is as follows:
Climate Change and Species Range Dynamics in Protected Areas. Javier Monzón, Lucas Moyer-Horner, and Maria Baron Palamar
Invasive Plant Atlas of New England: The Role of Citizens in the Science of Invasive Alien Species Detection. Sarah T. Bois, John A. Silander Jr., and Leslie J. Mehrhoff
Large-scale Environmental Monitoring by Indigenous Peoples. Jeffrey B. Luzar, Kirsten M. Silvius, Han Overman, Sean T. Giery, Jane M. Reed, and José M. V. Fragoso
Interactions Among Foundation Species and Their Consequences For Community Organization, Biodiversity, and Conservation. Christine Angelini, Andrew H. Altieri, Brian R. Silliman, and Mark D. Bertness
Integrating Science and Policy: A Case Study of the Brook Research Foundation Science Links Program. Charles T. Driscoll, Kathy Fallon Lambert, and Kathleen C. Weathers
The Value of Conceptual Models in Coping with Complexity and Interdisciplinarity in Environmental Sciences Education. Karen P. J. Fortuin, C. S. A. (Kris) van Koppen, and Rik Leemans
Will the Use of Less Fecund Cultivars Reduce the Invasiveness of Perennial Plants? Tiffany M. Knight, Kayri Havens, and Pati Vitt