SEATTLE—The collaborative TEAMcare program for people with depression and either diabetes, heart disease, or both appears at least to pay for itself, according to a UW Medicine and Group Health Research Institute report in the May 7 Archives of General Psychiatry. Over two years, after accounting for the $1,224 per patient that the program cost, it may save as much as $594 per patient in outpatient costs.
"Also, over the course of two years, people who received the TEAMcare intervention had a mean of 114 more days free from depression than did the people who received usual care," said the leader of this randomized controlled trial, Wayne J. Katon, MD. Dr. Katon is a University of Washington (UW) professor of psychiatry and behavioral sciences and an affiliate investigator at Group Health Research Institute. Because of individual variability, the trial was not large enough to assess the program's effect on inpatient costs.
"TEAMcare is a 'high-value intervention,' because the odds are 99.7 percent that it would cost less than $20,000 per quality-adjusted life year," Dr. Katon said. People who received the TEAMcare intervention were estimated to have a third of an additional quality-adjusted life year (QALY). The QALY measure estimates how much time an intervention would add to a person's quality of life. One QALY is an extra year of life in good health that the intervention would add. The standard is that if an intervention costs less than $20,000 per QALY, it is "high value" and should be spread quickly into health care systems.
"This is important because more and more people have multiple physical and mental chronic conditions, and caring for them is difficult—and costly," Dr. Katon said. The one in four U.S. adults with two or more chronic illnesses now account for two-thirds of health care spending, he added.
At Group Health, health care and coverage are integrated, with clinicians paid a salary. Most Americans get care from fee-for-service practices, and the researchers estimate that in such settings TEAMcare may have a higher return on investment: If diabetes nurses bill for their services at $54 per visit for up to 10 visits, the 24-month mean outpatient cost savings would be $1,116, with a cost savings per QALY of $3,297.
Earlier, Dr. Katon and his colleagues published the clinical results of the same randomized controlled trial in the New England Journal of Medicine. They reported that TEAMcare resulted in less depression and better-controlled blood pressure, sugar, and cholesterol levels for 214 Group Health Cooperative patients with depression and diabetes and/or heart disease.
With Michael Von Korff, ScD, a senior investigator at Group Health Research Institute, the same research group also published in the British Medical Journal that patients receiving the intervention had better quality of life and less disability than did patients with usual care.
With Elizabeth H.B. Lin, MD, MPH, the group published in the Annals of Family Medicine that the TEAMcare program works through primary-care doctors starting and adjusting medications sooner and more often to reach goals ("treating to target"); and motivating patients to participate in their own care and monitor their illnesses. Dr. Lin is a Group Health family physician and an affiliate investigator at Group Health Research Institute.
TEAMcare is a patient-centered program that is based on the Chronic Care Model. Nurses work with patients and health teams to manage care for depression and physical diseases together, using evidence-based guidelines. Together, the nurse and patient set realistic step-by-step goals: improving function and quality of life and reducing depression and blood sugar, pressure, and cholesterol levels. To reach these goals, the nurse regularly monitored the patient's mental and physical health. Based on guidelines that promoted incremental improvements, the multidisciplinary care team offered recommendations to the patient's primary care doctor to consider treatment changes to manage blood pressure, blood sugar, lipids, or depression.
Interest is high in spreading integrated, coordinated, team-based care for patients with depression and poorly controlled physical diseases. Dr. Lin is leading a project to implement TEAMcare as part of usual primary care at Group Health, and there is also interest in spreading the program to other organizations.
The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) funded the TEAMcare trial and this research.
In addition to Drs. Katon, Von Korff, and Lin, the other co-authors were: Joan Russo, PhD, of the UW School of Medicine's Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences; Paul Ciechanowski, MDCM, MPH, of the UW School of Medicine's Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences and an affiliate investigator at Group Health Research Institute; Bessie A. Young, MD, MPH, of the UW School of Medicine's Department of Medicine and Veterans Affairs Puget Sound Health Care; Evette J. Ludman, PhD, and Do Peterson, MS, of Group Health Research Institute; and Julie A. Schmittdiel, PhD, of the Kaiser Permanente Division of Research in Oakland.
TEAMcare is a highly effective program designed to improve disease control in patients with diabetes and/or cardiovascular disease as well as to improve depressive symptoms, functioning, and quality of life. Visit this website for more information about the TEAMcare trial of team-based care: www.teamcarehealth.org.
Archives of General Psychiatry
Published by the American Medical Association, the Archives of General Psychiatry strives to publish original, state-of-the-art studies and commentaries of general interest to clinicians, scholars, and research scientists in psychiatry, mental health, behavioral science, and allied fields. The Archives seeks to inform and to educate its readers as well as to stimulate debate and further exploration into the nature, causes, treatment, and public health importance of mental illness. The Archives is an international peer-reviewed journal published 12 times a year. The online version is published on the first Monday of the month. For more information, visit http://archpsyc.ama-assn.org.
The UW Medicine health system includes Harborview Medical Center, Northwest Hospital & Medical Center, Valley Medical Center, UW Medical Center, UW Neighborhood Clinics, UW Physicians, UW School of Medicine, and Airlift Northwest. UW Medicine also shares in the ownership and governance of Children's University Medical Group and Seattle Cancer Care Alliance, a partnership among UW Medicine, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, and Seattle Children's. UW Medicine has major academic and service affiliations with Seattle Children's, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, the Veteran's Affairs Puget Sound Health Care System in Seattle, and the VA Hospital in Boise, Idaho. The UW School of Medicine is the top public institution for biomedical research in funding received from the National Institutes of Health. For more information about UW Medicine, visit http://www.uwmedicine.org/.
Group Health Research Institute
Group Health Research Institute is the research arm of Seattle-based Group Health Cooperative, a consumer-governed, nonprofit health care system. Founded in 1947, Group Health Cooperative coordinates health care and coverage. Group Health Research Institute changed its name from Group Health Center for Health Studies in 2009. Since 1983, the Institute has conducted nonproprietary public-interest research on preventing, diagnosing, and treating major health problems. Government and private research grants provide its main funding. For more information, visit http://www.grouphealthresearch.org.
Kaiser Permanente Division of Research
The Kaiser Permanente Division of Research conducts, publishes, and disseminates epidemiologic and health services research to improve the health and medical care of Kaiser Permanente members and the society at large. It seeks to understand the determinants of illness and well-being and to improve the quality and cost-effectiveness of health care. Currently, DOR's 600-plus staff is working on more than 250 epidemiological and health services research projects. For more information, visit http://www.dor.kaiser.org/.
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