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Contact: Michael Bishop
michael.bishop@iop.org
44-117-930-1032
Institute of Physics

Squid and zebrafish cells inspire camouflaging smart materials

Researchers from the University of Bristol have created artificial muscles that can be transformed at the flick of a switch to mimic the remarkable camouflaging abilities of organisms such as squid and zebrafish.

They demonstrate two individual transforming mechanisms that they believe could be used in 'smart clothing' to trigger camouflaging tricks similar to those seen in nature.

The study is published today, 2 May, in IOP Publishing's journal Bioinspiration and Biomimetics, and is accompanied by a video showing the camouflaging in action.

"We have taken inspiration from nature's designs and exploited the same methods to turn our artificial muscles into striking visual effects," said lead author of the study Jonathan Rossiter.

The soft, stretchy, artificial muscles are based on specialist cells called chromatophores that are found in amphibians, fish, reptiles and cephalopods, and contain pigments of colours that are responsible for the animals' remarkable colour-changing effects.

The colour changes in these organisms can be triggered by changes in mood, temperature, stress or something visible in the environment, and can be used for camouflage, communication or attracting a mate.

Two types of artificial chromatophores were created in the study: the first based on a mechanism adopted by a squid and the second based on a rather different mechanism adopted by zebrafish.

A typical colour-changing cell in a squid has a central sac containing granules of pigment. The sac is surrounded by a series of muscles and when the cell is ready to change colour, the brain sends a signal to the muscles and they contract. The contracting muscles make the central sacs expand, generating the optical effect which makes the squid look like it is changing colour.

The fast expansion of these muscles was mimicked using dielectric elastomers (DEs) smart materials, usually made of a polymer, which are connected to an electric circuit and expand when a voltage is applied. They return to their original shape when they are short circuited.

In contrast, the cells in the zebrafish contain a small reservoir of black pigmented fluid that, when activated, travels to the skin surface and spreads out, much like the spilling of black ink. The natural dark spots on the surface of the zebrafish therefore appear to get bigger and the desired optical effect is achieved. The changes are usually driven by hormones.

The zebrafish cells were mimicked using two glass microscope slides sandwiching a silicone layer. Two pumps, made from flexible DEs, were positioned on both sides of the slide and were connected to the central system with silicone tubes; one pumping opaque white spirit, the other a mixture of black ink and water.

"Our artificial chromatophores are both scalable and adaptable and can be made into an artificial compliant skin which can stretch and deform, yet still operate effectively. This means they can be used in many environments where conventional 'hard' technologies would be dangerous, for example at the physical interface with humans, such as smart clothing," continued Rossiter.

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From 2 May, this paper can be downloaded from: http://iopscience.iop.org/1748-3190/7/3/036009

Notes to Editors

Contact

1. For further information, a full draft of the journal paper or contact with one of the researchers, contact IOP Publishing Press Assistant, Michael Bishop:
Tel: 0117 930 1032
E-mail: Michael.Bishop@iop.org

Biomimetic chromatophores for camouflage and soft active surfaces

2. The published version of the paper "Biomimetic chromatophores for camouflage and soft active surfaces" (Bioinspir. Biomim. 7 036009) will be freely available online from 2 May. It will be available at http://iopscience.iop.org/1748-3190/7/3/036009

Bioinspiration & Biomimetics

3. Bioinspiration & Biomimetics publishes research which applies principles abstracted from natural systems to engineering and technological design and applications.

IOP Publishing

4. IOP Publishing provides publications through which leading-edge scientific research is distributed worldwide.

IOP Publishing is part of the Institute of Physics, a leading scientific society promoting physics and bringing physicists together for the benefit of all. Any financial surplus earned by IOP Publishing goes to support science through the activities of the Institute.

Beyond the company's core journals programme, high-value scientific information is made easily accessible through an ever-evolving portfolio of community websites, magazines, conference proceedings and a multitude of electronic services. IOP is focused on making the most of new technologies and continually improving electronic interfaces to make it easier for researchers to find exactly what they need, when they need it, in the format that suits them best. Go to http://publishing.iop.org/.

The Institute of Physics

5. The Institute of Physics is a leading scientific society promoting physics and bringing physicists together for the benefit of all.

It has a worldwide membership of around 40 000 comprising physicists from all sectors, as well as those with an interest in physics. It works to advance physics research, application and education; and engages with policy makers and the public to develop awareness and understanding of physics. Its publishing company, IOP Publishing, is a world leader in professional scientific communications. Go to www.iop.org



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