The American College of Rheumatology (ACR) has issued newly created guidelines for the screening, treatment, and management of lupus nephritis--a severe manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) where the disease attacks the kidneys. Previously, only general guidelines for SLE existed for clinicians. The guidelines, available today in Arthritis Care & Research, are specific to lupus nephritis and include methods for identifying renal disease, newer therapies, and treatment of pregnant SLE patients with kidney involvement.
The ACR estimates that up to 322,000 adult Americans are diagnosed with SLE, a chronic autoimmune disease that causes inflammation, fatigue, joint pain, and organ damage. Lupus nephritis is one of the most serious complications of SLE where inflammation of the kidney could lead to renal failure. Medical evidence suggests that 35% of adults in the U.S. have evidence of nephritis at the time of SLE diagnosis, and up to 60% develop kidney involvement during the first 10 years with the disease.
Furthermore, previous studies report that patient survival is reduced to 88% at 10 years when lupus nephritis is present, and that survival rate is even lower for African Americans. "Lupus nephritis can be life-threatening, and proper management of the disease is vital to prevent permanent organ damage and preserve quality of life for patients," explains one of the lead guideline contributors, Dr. Bevra Hahn, Professor of Medicine at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA). "Given the serious threat of kidney involvement in SLE and the availability of newer therapies, it was necessary to create specific guidelines for managing the care of patients with lupus nephritis."
To establish the 2012 lupus nephritis guidelines, investigators reviewed medical literature from 1966 through 2010 for all evidence pertaining to "lupus kidney disease." Three panels of researchers were involved with reviewing the data and producing the recommendations that include:
- Advising renal biopsy (in previously untreated patients with active nephritis)
- Adjunctive treatment (background therapy with hydroxychloroquine, ACE inhibitors, control of blood pressure to goal of 130/80 or lower for almost all SLE patients with nephritis)
- Induction of improvement in patients
- with ISN Class III/IV lupus glomerulonephritis
- with Class IV or IV/V plus cellular crescents
- with Class V "pure membranous" lupus nephritis
- Maintaining improvement in patients responsive to induction therapy (with azathioprine or mycophenolate mofetil)
- Changing therapies in patients not adequately responsive to induction therapy
- Identifying vascular disease in SLE patients with renal abnormalities
- Treating nephritis in pregnant patients
Despite the availability of new therapeutics, studies have shown an increase in the incidence of end-stage renal disease from lupus over the past twenty years, with specific increases in young patients, African Americans, and in the southern U.S. "We look forward to seeing a reduction in these trends with implementation of these guidelines as part of high-quality, comprehensive care for SLE patients," said Dr. Hahn.
The authors acknowledge that the guidelines are limited by the absence of agreed terms for remission, flare and response, and limited data to inform recommendations for steroid dosing and tapering of immunosuppressive therapies. Dr. Hahn concludes, "Ongoing evaluation and expansion of the guidelines is necessary to further improve outcomes for patients with SLE and nephritis."
Full citation: : "American College of Rheumatology Guidelines for Screening, Treatment, and Management of Lupus Nephritis." Bevra H. Hahn, Maureen McMahon, Alan Wilkinson, W. Dean Wallace, David I. Daikh, John Fitzgerald, George Karpouzas, Joan T. Merrill, Daniel J. Wallace, Jinoos Yazdany, Rosalind Ramsey-Goldman, Karandeep Singh, Mazdak Khalighi, Soo-In Choi, Maneesh Gogia, Suzanne Kafaja, Mohammad Kamgar, Christine Lau, William J. Martin, Sefali Parikh, Justin Peng, Anjay Rastogi, Weiling Chen, and Jennifer M. Grossman. Arthritis Care & Research; Published Online: May 3, 2012 (DOI: 10.1002/acr.21664).
URL upon publication: http://doi.
Author Contact: To arrange an interview with Dr. Hahn, please contact Weiling Chen by email at firstname.lastname@example.org.
About the Journal: Arthritis Care & Research is an official journal of the American College of Rheumatology (ACR), and the Association of Rheumatology Health Professionals (ARHP), a division of the College. Arthritis Care & Research is a peer-reviewed research publication that publishes both original research and review articles that promote excellence in the clinical practice of rheumatology. Relevant to the care of individuals with arthritis and related disorders, major topics are evidence-based practice studies, clinical problems, practice guidelines, health care economics, health care policy, educational, social, and public health issues, and future trends in rheumatology practice. The journal is published by Wiley-Blackwell on behalf of the American College of Rheumatology (ACR). For more information, please visit http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1002/(ISSN)2151-4658.
About the Society:
Headquartered in Atlanta, Ga., the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) is an international professional medical society that represents more than 8,500 rheumatologists and rheumatology health professionals. Rheumatologists are internists or pediatricians who are qualified by training and experience in the diagnosis and treatment of arthritis and other diseases of the joints, muscles and bones. Over 50 million Americans -- including nearly 300,000 children -- suffer from the painful, disabling and sometimes fatal effects of arthritis and rheumatic diseases. Learn more by visiting www.rheumatology.org or follow ACR on Twitter at http://twitter.
About Wiley-Blackwell: Wiley-Blackwell is the international scientific, technical, medical, and scholarly publishing business of John Wiley & Sons, with strengths in every major academic and professional field and partnerships with many of the world's leading societies. Wiley-Blackwell publishes nearly 1,500 peer-reviewed journals and 1,500+ new books annually in print and online, as well as databases, major reference works and laboratory protocols. For more information, please visit www.wileyblackwell.com or our new online platform, Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com), one of the world's most extensive multidisciplinary collections of online resources, covering life, health, social and physical sciences, and humanities.