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PUBLIC RELEASE DATE:
2-Dec-2013

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Contact: Jo Bowler
j.bowler@exeter.ac.uk
44-013-927-22062
University of Exeter

Arctic study shows key marine food web species at risk from increasing CO2

IMAGE: This is Dr. Ceri Lewis from the University of Exeter with sample bottles.

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A research expedition to the Arctic, as part of the Catlin Arctic Survey, has revealed that tiny crustaceans, known as copepods, that live just beneath the ocean surface are likely to battle for survival if ocean acidity continues to rise. The study found that copepods that move large distances, migrating vertically across a wide range of pH conditions, have a better chance of surviving.

The increasing level of carbon dioxide in our atmosphere is changing ocean chemistry leading to seawater moving down the pH scale towards acidity. Some areas of the Arctic Ocean are already experiencing the fastest rates of acidification on the planet and, combined with sea-ice loss and warming temperatures, the impacts of climate change are likely to hit Arctic marine life first.

The study is published in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) and was carried out by the University of Exeter and the Plymouth Marine Laboratory. The scientists observed that the natural range of temperature and acidity under the ice that copepods experience on a day-to-day basis corresponded to their responses to the ocean acidification conditions predicted for 100 years' time.

Dr Ceri Lewis from the University of Exeter said: "Our study found that some marine animals may not be able to survive the impact of ocean acidification, particularly the early-life stages. This unique insight into how marine life will respond to future changes in the oceans has implications that reach far beyond the Arctic regions."

Found across the globe, copepods are one of the most abundant marine animals and are a vital food source for a wide variety of other marine life. Copepods can also act as bio-indicators, providing an early warning system for the health of the environment.

Until recently, it has been difficult to document what copepods and other marine life do when the Arctic Ocean is covered by sea ice, and more specifically what conditions they experience. The researchers, working alongside polar explorers as part of the Catlin Arctic Survey, camped in winter conditions on the Arctic ice at temperatures of -40⁰C, risking frost bitten fingers, in order to collect this novel data.

IMAGE: These are the researchers in the Arctic.

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Dr Helen Findlay from Plymouth Marine Laboratory said: "Our work has shown that life experience matters when it comes to surviving stressors. More studies are needed that link the natural environmental conditions to laboratory experiments. Ceri and I are planning to continue this line of work through a PhD studentship next year."

An estimated 30% of carbon dioxide released by humans into the atmosphere dissolves into oceans. With carbon emissions set to increase, the world's oceans are likely to suffer from increased acidification in the coming years. This study reveals how these changes are likely to impact globally important species like copepods.

The study demonstrates that organisms with a limited natural habitat range are likely to suffer the most under changing climatic and oceanic conditions. Organisms with a wide natural range are likely to cope better.

Future studies will consider whether the type of habitat can be used to predict the vulnerability of different species to climate change.

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Notes to editors

The research by Dr Ceri Lewis and Dr Helen Findlay is part of a broad scientific research programme undertaken by the Catlin Arctic Survey between 2009 and 2011.

The Catlin Arctic Survey, through its establishment of a seasonal Ice Base in the High Arctic, has enabled research to be conducted which significantly furthers our understanding of climate change in the region.

It was part of a continuing programme of support for research into ocean changes by Catlin Group Limited, the international specialty insurer and reinsurer.

IMAGE: This is Dr. Helen Findlay from Plymouth Marine Laboratory with the water sampler.

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For further information and images:

Dr Jo Bowler
University of Exeter Press Office
Office: +44 (0)1392 722062
Mobile: +44(0)7827 309 332
Twitter: @UoE_ScienceNews
j.bowler@exeter.ac.uk

About the University of Exeter

The Sunday Times University of the Year 2012-13, the University of Exeter is a Russell Group university and in the top one percent of institutions globally. It combines world-class research with very high levels of student satisfaction. Exeter has over 18,000 students and is ranked 8th in The Times and The Sunday Times Good University Guide league table, 10th in The Complete University Guide and 12th in the Guardian University Guide 2014. In the 2008 Research Assessment Exercise (RAE) 90% of the University's research was rated as being at internationally recognised levels and 16 of its 31 subjects are ranked in the top 10, with 27 subjects ranked in the top 20. The University has invested strategically to deliver more than 350 million worth of new facilities across its campuses in the last few years; including landmark new student services centres - the Forum in Exeter and The Exchange on the Penryn Campus in Cornwall, together with world-class new facilities for Biosciences, the Business School and the Environment and Sustainability Institute. There are plans for another 330 million of investment between now and 2016. http://www.exeter.ac.uk

About Plymouth Marine Laboratory (PML)

PML is an independent, impartial provider of scientific research & contract services for the marine environment. PML's research focuses on understanding how marine ecosystems function and reducing uncertainty about the complex processes and structures that sustain life in the seas and their role in the Earth system. A truly interdisciplinary marine research centre, PML delivers highly innovative research and solutions for national and international marine and coastal programmes. PML's science is timely, highly relevant to UK and international societal needs and has the mission to contribute to issues concerned with understanding global change and the health and sustainability of marine ecosystems.

http://www.pml.ac.uk



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