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PUBLIC RELEASE DATE:
6-Jan-2014

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Contact: Cody Mooneyhan
cmooneyhan@faseb.org
301-634-7104
Society of Vertebrate Paleontology

New fossils shed light on the origins of lions, and tigers, and bears (oh my!)

IMAGE: This is a reconstruction of Dormaalcyon latouri.

Click here for more information.

New fossils from Belgium have shed light on the origin of some of the most well-known, and well-loved, modern mammals. Cats and dogs, as well as other carnivorous mammals (like bears, seals, and weasels), taxonomically called 'carnivoraformes', trace their ancestry to primitive carnivorous mammals dating back to 55 million years ago (the beginning of the time period called the Eocene). A study, published in the most recent issue of the Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, discusses the origins of this group and describes new specimens of one of the earliest of these primitive taxa.

The species, dubbed Dormaalocyon latouri, had previously been found at the Belgian locality of Dormaal (thus the name of the genus). New specimens found by lead author Floréal Solé and his colleagues, allow for a better characterization of the animal, and its placement in the evolutionary history of carnivores. "Its description allows better understanding of the origination, variability and ecology of the earliest carnivoraforms", says Solé.

IMAGE: This is a reconstruction of Dormaalcyon latouri showing fossils that have been recovered, including teeth, jaws, and ankle bones.

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The new specimens include over 250 teeth and ankle bones. More teeth allow for a description of the entire tooth row of Dormaalocyon, while previous finds only included two upper molars. The new finds even include the deciduous teeth (or 'baby teeth'). The fact that these teeth are very primitive looking, and from a very early time, implies that Dormaalocyon is close to the origin of carnivoraforms, and that this origin may have been in Europe.

The ankle bones suggest that Dormaalocyon was arboreal, living and moving through the trees. Previous reconstructions of the environment at Dormaal 55 million years ago inferred a warm, humid, and wooded area. This was a time soon after an event called the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (or PETM). This extremely warm period affected the evolution of many mammal groups, including carnivoraforms. Dr. Solé believes that the fact that Dormaalocyon was arboreal, and that carnivoraforms made their way to North America around this time, "supports the existence of a continuous evergreen forest belt at high latitudes during the PETM".

IMAGE: This is a hypothetical phylogeny (family tree) of carniovrous mammals showing the placement of Dormaalcyon within the carnivoraformes, and the relationship of carnivoraformes to modern taxa, divided into feliforms (cat-like...

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Although close to the origin of carnivoraforms, the fossils suggest there were even more primitive species in the group in an earlier time period, the Paleocene. Says Solé, "The understanding of the origination of the carnivoraforms is important for reconstructing the adaptation of placental mammals to carnivorous diet. Therefore, Dormaalocyon provides information concerning the evolution of placental mammals after the disappearance of the largest dinosaurs (at the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event). Our study shows that the carnivoraforms were very diversified at the earliest Eocene, which allows hypothesizing that they were probably already diversified during the latest Paleocene". This means there are more fossils out there to be found that can answer the question of the origin of this beloved modern group.

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About the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology

Founded in 1940 by thirty-four paleontologists, the Society now has more than 2,300 members representing professionals, students, artists, preparators, and others interested in VP. It is organized exclusively for educational and scientific purposes, with the object of advancing the science of vertebrate paleontology.

About the Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology

The Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology (JVP) is the leading journal of professional vertebrate paleontology and the flagship publication of the Society. It was founded in 1980 by Dr. Jiri Zidek and publishes contributions on all aspects of vertebrate paleontology.

CITATION:

Solé, F., R. Smith, T. Coillot, E. De Bast, T. Smith. 2014. DENTAL AND TARSAL ANATOMY OF 'MIACIS' LATOURI AND A PHYLOGENETIC ANALYSIS OF THE EARLIEST CARNIVORAFORMS (MAMMALIA, CARNIVORAMORPHA). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 34(1): 1-21. http://www.tandfonline.com/toc/ujvp20/current

AUTHOR CONTACT INFORMATION:

Floréal Solé
Department of Paleontology
Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences
Rue Vautier 29, B-1000
Brussels, Belgium
floreal.sole@naturalsciences.be
00 32 2 627 44 88

Richard Smith
Department of Paleontology
Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences
Rue Vautier 29, B-1000
Brussels, Belgium
richardsmithpal@hotmail.com

Tiphanie Coillot
UMR CNRS 7262
Institut International de Paléoprimatologie, Paléontologie Humaine:
Evolution et Paléoenvironnements (IPHEP)
Université de Poitiers
6 rue Michel Brunet
86022 Poitiers Cedex, France
tiphaine.coillot@univ-poitiers.fr

Eric De Bast
Department of Paleontology
Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences
Rue Vautier 29, B-1000
Brussels, Belgium
eric.debast@naturalsciences.be

Thierry Smith
Department of Paleontology
Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences
Rue Vautier 29, B-1000
Brussels, Belgium
thierry.smith@naturalsciences.be

Other Experts Not Associated with this Study

Gregg Gunnell
Director of the Division of Fossil Primates, Duke Lemur Center, Duke University
1013 Broad Street
gregg.gunnell@duke.edu

Philip D. Gingerich
Curator, Museum of Paleontology, The University of Michigan
Museum of Paleontology, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1079
734-764-0490
gingeric@umich.edu

K. Christopher Beard
Curator and Mary R. Dawson Chair of Vertebrate Paleontology, Carnegie Museum of Natural History
4400 Forbes Avenue Pittsburgh, PA 15213–4080
412-622-5782
BeardC@carnegiemnh.org

Rodolphe Tabuce
Chargé de recherche CNRS, Institut des Sciences de l'Evolution Montpellier, Université Montpellier II,
Place Eugène Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 05, France
00 33 (0)4 67 14 36 25
rodolphe.tabuce@univ-montp2.fr

Jerry J. Hooker
Department of Palaeontology, Natural History Museum
Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD
j.hooker@nhm.ac.uk

Michelle Spaulding
Postdoctoral Fellow, Mammals and Vertebrate Paleontology Edward O'Neil Research Center
Carnegie Museum of Natural History

Pittsburgh, PA 15213-4080

412-665-2614
SpauldingM@carnegiemnh.org

Anthony Friscia (Member SVP Media Liaison Committee)
University of California – Los Angeles
Dept. of Integrative Biology and Physiology
621 Charles Young Dr. So.
Los Angeles, CA 90095-1606
310-206-6011
tonyf@ucla.edu



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