There is evidence that astrocytes are closely related to the development and formation of retinal vessels. Dysfunction of astrocytes is an important cause of many retinal vascular disorders and blood-retinal barrier. Huanling Yao, Institute of Neurobiology, College of Life Science, Henan University, China, investigated development of the retinal vascular system and formation of the blood-retinal barrier in mice using immunofluorescence staining, gelatin-ink perfusion, and transmission electron microscopy. The development of the vasculature in the retina followed the rules of "center to periphery" and "superficial layer to deep layers". Its development and maturation were spatially and temporally consistent with the functional performance of retinal neurons and photosensitivity. The blood-retinal barrier gradually became mature via the process of interactions between astrocytes and blood vessel cells. These results were published in Neural Regeneration Research (Vol. 9, No. 10, 2014).
Article: " The development of blood-retinal barrier during the interaction of astrocytes with vascular wall cells," by Huanling Yao, Tianshi Wang, Jiexin Deng, Ding Liu, Xiaofei Li, Jinbo Deng (Institute of Neurobiology, College of Life Science, Henan University, Kaifeng, Henan Province, China) Yao HL, Wang TS, Deng JX, Liu D, Li XF, Deng JB. The development of blood-retinal barrier during the interaction of astrocytes with vascular wall cells. Neural Regen Res. 2014;9(10):1047-1054.