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Showing releases 151-175 out of 425.

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Public Release: 16-Apr-2014
Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
Surveillance colonoscopy recommendations for average-risk patients with 1 to 2 small polyps consistent with guidelines
According to a new study, endoscopists' recommendations for timing of surveillance colonoscopy in average-risk patients with one to two small polyps are consistent with guideline recommendations in about 90 percent of cases. This may be an appropriate target for quality indicators. This is the first multicenter endoscopic database study to quantify adherence to guidelines for timing of repeat colonoscopy after one to two small polyps are found during screening colonoscopy in average-risk patients.

Contact: Anne Brownsey
abrownsey@asge.org
630-570-5635
American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy

Public Release: 16-Apr-2014
Nature
Meteorites yield clues to red planet's early atmosphere
Geologists analyzed 40 meteorites that fell to Earth from Mars to understand the history of the Martian atmosphere. Their April 17 Nature paper shows the atmospheres of Mars and Earth diverged in important ways early in the solar system's 4.6 billion year evolution.
NASA Cosmochemistry

Contact: Heather Dewar
hdewar@umd.edu
301-405-9267
University of Maryland

Public Release: 16-Apr-2014
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Gate for bacterial toxins found
Prof. Dr. Dr. Klaus Aktories and Dr. Panagiotis Papatheodorou from the University of Freiburg have discovered the receptor responsible for smuggling the toxin of the bacterium Clostridium perfringens into the cell. The TpeL toxin is formed by C. perfringens, a pathogen that causes gas gangrene and food poisoning. It is very similar to the toxins of many other hospital germs of the genus Clostridium. Aktories is member of the BIOSS Centre for Biological Signalling Studies.

Contact: Dr. Klaus Aktories
klaus.aktories@pharmakol.uni-freiburg.de
49-761-203-5301
University of Freiburg

Public Release: 16-Apr-2014
Fertility and Sterility
Preterm births, multiples, and fertility treatment
While it is well known that fertility treatments are the leading cause of increases in multiple gestations and that multiples are at elevated risk of premature birth, these results are not inevitable, concludes an article in Fertility and Sterility. The article identifies six changes in policy and practice that can reduce the odds of multiple births and prematurity, including expanding insurance coverage for in vitro fertilization and improving doctor-patient communications about the risks associated with twins.
March of Dimes

Contact: Susan Gilbert
gilberts@thehastingscenter.org
845-424-4040 x244
The Hastings Center

Public Release: 16-Apr-2014
Journal of Environmental Quality
Significant baseline levels of arsenic found in Ohio soils are due to natural processes
Geologic and soil processes are to blame for significant baseline levels of arsenic in soil throughout Ohio, according to a new study. The findings pose a challenge for regulators, who must determine what levels should trigger action when natural arsenic levels everywhere are above suggested screening standards.
Ohio Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geological Survey, US Geological Survey

Contact: Tom Rickey
tom.rickey@pnnl.gov
509-375-3732
DOE/Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

Public Release: 16-Apr-2014
Neuron
Eavesdropping on brain cell chatter
Everything we do -- all of our movements, thoughts and feelings -- are the result of neurons talking with one another, and recent studies have suggested that some of the conversations might not be all that private. Brain cells known as astrocytes may be listening in on, or even participating in, some of those discussions. But a new mouse study suggests that astrocytes might only be tuning in part of the time -- specifically, when the neurons get really excited about something.
NIH/National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke

Contact: Barbara McMakin
nindspressteam@ninds.nih.gov
301-496-5751
NIH/National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke

Public Release: 16-Apr-2014
Cell
Vanderbilt researchers discover how intestinal cells build nutrient-absorbing surface
The 'brush border' -- a densely packed array of finger-like projections called microvilli -- covers the surfaces of the cells that line our intestines. Vanderbilt University researchers have now discovered how intestinal cells build this specialized structure, which is critical for absorbing nutrients and defending against pathogens. The findings, published April 10 in Cell, reveal a role for adhesion molecules in brush border assembly and increase our understanding of intestinal pathologies associated with inherited and infectious diseases.
National Institutes of Health, American Heart Association, Vanderbilt Innovation and Discovery in Engineering And Science award

Contact: Leigh MacMillan
leigh.macmillan@vanderbilt.edu
615-322-4747
Vanderbilt University Medical Center

Public Release: 16-Apr-2014
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Scientists unlock secrets of protein produced by disease-causing fungus
The fungal pathogen Candida albicans causes yeast infections, diaper rashes and oral thrush, and is the most common fungal pathogen to infect humans. It can also cause a life-threatening infection of the blood called disseminated candidiasis. In a new study, scientists from San Antonio and Baltimore determined the three-dimensional structure of a never-before-seen cell wall protein called SOD5 that the organism uses as a defense against the human immune system.

Contact: Will Sansom
sansom@uthscsa.edu
210-567-2579
University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio

Public Release: 16-Apr-2014
Geology
Dartmouth-led study shows air temperature influenced African glacial movements
Changes in air temperature, not precipitation, drove the expansion and contraction of glaciers in Africa's Rwenzori Mountains at the height of the last ice age, according to a Dartmouth-led study funded by the National Geographic Society and the National Science Foundation.
National Geographic Society, National Science Foundation

Contact: John Cramer
John.Cramer@Dartmouth.edu
603-646-9130
Dartmouth College

Public Release: 16-Apr-2014
Physical Review Letters
Theoretical biophysics: Adventurous bacteria
To reproduce or to conquer the world? Surprisingly, bacteria also face this problem. Theoretical biophysicists at Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet in Munich have now shown how these organisms should decide how best to preserve their species.

Contact: Luise Dirscherl
dirscherl@lmu.de
0049-892-180-2706
Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München

Public Release: 16-Apr-2014
Journal of Experimental Social Psychology
Why interest is crucial to your success
Maintaining an interest in the goals you pursue can improve your work and reduce burnout, according to research from Duke University.

Contact: Steve Hartsoe
steve.hartsoe@duke.edu
919-681-4515
Duke University

Public Release: 16-Apr-2014
Nature
Progress in the fight against quantum dissipation
Scientists at Yale have confirmed a 50-year-old, previously untested theoretical prediction in physics and improved the energy storage time of a quantum switch by several orders of magnitude. They report their results in the April 17 issue of the journal Nature.
National Science Foundation, Department of Energy, Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity, European Union, Yale

Contact: Eric Gershon
eric.gershon@yale.edu
203-432-8555
Yale University

Public Release: 16-Apr-2014
Review of Finance
Rice U. study: Performance measures for CEOs vary greatly
As companies file their annual proxy statements with the US Securities and Exchange Commission this spring, a new study by Rice University and Cornell University shows just how S&P 500 companies have tied CEO compensation to performance. The study found large variations in the choice of performance measures, and the researchers said that companies tend to choose measures that are informative of CEO actions.

Contact: Jeff Falk
jfalk@rice.edu
713-348-6775
Rice University

Public Release: 16-Apr-2014
Nature Communications
Recycling industrial waste water
A research group composed of Dr. Martin Prechtl, Leo Heim and their colleagues at the University of Cologne's Department of Chemistry has discovered a new method of generating hydrogen using water and formaldehyde.
North-Rhine Westphalia's Ministry for Innovation, Science and Research

Contact: Dr. Martin Prechtl
martin.prechtl@uni-koeln.de
49-221-470-1981
University of Cologne

Public Release: 16-Apr-2014
Neuron
Cancer drugs block dementia-linked brain inflammation, UCI study finds
A class of drugs developed to treat immune-related conditions and cancer -- including one currently in clinical trials for glioblastoma and other tumors -- eliminates neural inflammation associated with dementia-linked diseases and brain injuries, according to UC Irvine researchers.
NIH/National Institute of Neurological Disorders & Stroke

Contact: Tom Vasich
tmvasich@uci.edu
949-824-6455
University of California - Irvine

Public Release: 16-Apr-2014
Geology
Scratching the surface: Microbial etchings in impact glass and the search for life on Mars
Haley M. Sapers and colleagues provide what may be the first report of biological activity preserved in impact glass. Recent research has suggested that impact events create novel within-rock microbial habitats. In their paper, 'Enigmatic tubular features in impact glass,' Sapers and colleagues analyze tubular features in hydrothermally altered impact glass from the Ries Impact Structure, Germany, that are remarkably similar to the bioalteration textures observed in volcanic glasses.

Contact: Kea Giles
kgiles@geosociety.org
Geological Society of America

Public Release: 16-Apr-2014
JAMA Psychiatry
Atypical brain connectivity associated with autism spectrum disorder
Autism spectrum disorder in adolescents appears to be associated with atypical connectivity in the brain involving the systems that help people infer what others are thinking and understand the meaning of others' actions and emotions.

Contact: Natalia Elko
natalia.elko@mail.sdsu.edu
619-594-2585
The JAMA Network Journals

Public Release: 16-Apr-2014
JAMA Dermatology
Free drug samples can change prescribing habits of dermatologists
The availability of free medication samples in dermatology offices appears to change prescribing practices for acne, a common condition for which free samples are often available.

Contact: Krista Conger
kristac@stanford.edu
650-725-5371
The JAMA Network Journals

Public Release: 16-Apr-2014
PLOS ONE
First metritis vaccine protects dairy cows
Cornell scientists have created the first vaccines that can prevent metritis, one of the most common cattle diseases. The infection not only harms animals and farmers' profits, but also drives more systemic antibiotic use on dairy farms than any other disease. The new vaccines prevent metritis infection of the uterus from taking hold and reduce symptoms when it does, a prospect that could save the United States billions of dollars a year and help curb the growing epidemic of antibiotic resistance.

Contact: Melissa Osgood
mmo59@cornell.edu
607-255-2059
Cornell University

Public Release: 16-Apr-2014
Clinical Infectious Diseases
HIV+ women respond well to HPV vaccine
A three-nation clinical trial found that a vaccine can safely help the vast majority of HIV-positive women produce antibodies against the cancer-causing human papillomavirus, even if their immune system is weak and even if they've had some prior HPV exposure.
National Institutes of Health

Contact: David Orenstein
david_orenstein@brown.edu
401-863-1862
Brown University

Public Release: 16-Apr-2014
Survey: Percent of uninsured Texans has declined since September 2013
The percentage of uninsured adults ages 18 to 64 in Texas declined from 24.8 to 23.5 between September 2013 and March 2014, according to a report released today by Rice University's Baker Institute for Public Policy and the Episcopal Health Foundation. The decrease in uninsured appears to be attributable to an increase in employer-sponsored health insurance.

Contact: Jeff Falk
jfalk@rice.edu
713-348-6775
Rice University

Public Release: 16-Apr-2014
Journal of Experimental Psychology: General
U of T study finds toddlers 'surprisingly sophisticated' at understanding unfamiliar accents
A new study has found that by two years of age, children are remarkably good at comprehending speakers who talk with accents the toddlers have never heard before.

Contact: Dominic Ali
d.ali@utoronto.ca
416-978-6974
University of Toronto

Public Release: 16-Apr-2014
Making radiation-proof materials for electronics, power plants
The 2011 Fukushima nuclear disaster made the dangers of radiation all too real. To avoid similar tragedies in the future, scientists are working to develop new radiation-proof materials for nuclear power plants, as well as for less obvious applications such as medical devices and airplanes. An article in Chemical & Engineering News, the American Chemical Society's weekly news magazine, explores the latest developments.

Contact: Michael Bernstein
m_bernstein@acs.org
202-872-6042
American Chemical Society

Public Release: 16-Apr-2014
Sociology of Education
Local homicide rate increases cause more elementary students to fail school
A new study finds that an increase in a municipality's homicide rate causes more elementary school students in that community to fail a grade than would do so if the rate remained stable.

Contact: Daniel Fowler
pubinfo@asanet.org
202-527-7885
American Sociological Association

Public Release: 16-Apr-2014
Nature Physics
Scientists observe quantum superconductor-metal transition and superconducting glass
The article 'Collapse of superconductivity in a hybrid tin–grapheme Josephson junction array' (authors: Zheng Han, Adrien Allain, Hadi Arjmandi-Tash,Konstantin Tikhonov, Mikhail Feigelman, Benjamin Sacépé,Vincent Bouchiat, published in Nature Physics on March 30, 2014, presents the results of the first experimental study of the graphene-based quantum phase transition of the 'superconductor-to-metal' type, i.e. transformation of the system's ground state from superconducting to metallic, upon changing the electron concentration in graphene sheet.
Russian Foundation for Basic Research, Agence Nationale de la Recherche Blanc, DEFI Nano ERC

Contact: Alexandra O. Borissova
borisova.ao@mipt.ru
7-495-408-6445
Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology

Showing releases 151-175 out of 425.

<< < 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 > >>