Extra smells make finding flowers harder
Insects consume nectar from flowers. To find their favorite flowery snacks, they follow the odors flowers give off, but a new study in the June 27 issue of the journal Science reports that competing odors, including manmade ones, make this task harder for bugs.
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Skulls with mix of traits shine light on human evolution
Researchers have analyzed the biggest collection of ancient human fossils ever recovered from a single excavation site. Their study in the 20 June issue of the journal Science sheds light on the origin and evolution of Neandertals, an extinct species of human.
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Are isolated plant populations more prone to disease?
Researchers have generally believed that diseases spread quicker among densely clustered populations and slower among populations that are spread out. However, a new study of the weed, Plantago lanceolata, and a fungal pathogen, known as powdery mildew, which infects the weed, shows that highly connected plant populations -- those that are growing close together -- are more resistant to the powdery mildew than isolated populations of the plant.
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Sensors help catfish 'see' in the dark
Researchers have discovered that the Japanese sea catfish, Plotosus japonicas, has sensors on the outside of its body that detect slight changes in the water's pH level. In other words, these sensors can help the fish tell if the water they're swimming in becomes a little more acidic or basic -- an ability that helps them hunt in dark, murky waters.
Slowly removing invasive species spares the natives
Sometimes, getting rid of invasive species is harder than it sounds because native plants and animals come to rely on them for resources. Now, however, Adam Lampert and colleagues have come up with a new way to get rid of invasive species that also protects native species more effectively. But, it may take more time than traditional approaches, they say.
Unexpected twist in evolution of flightless birds
Ratite birds, some of the largest flightless birds, live all over the world, and now a new study published in the May 23 issue of the journal Science suggests they spread so far over not because big landmasses split up, forcing their separation, but because their ancestors flew far and wide. It was only after separating, this study says, that most members of this group lost the ability to fly.
Stick bugs show that some evolution is predictable
If we could go back to the beginning of life on Earth -- or rewind 'the tape of life,' as scientists say -- would plants and animals evolve exactly the same way they did? Or would it have all gone differently? It's a question that researchers have been trying to answer for a long time.
Materials that heal themselves
Imagine a material that can repair itself after a bullet passes through it. That's what Scott White and colleagues have designed. Until now, polymer materials, or materials made of large molecules that are, in turn, made up of small, repeating subunits, have only been engineered to repair very small defects. But these researchers have improved the self-healing properties of polymer materials to the point that they can now automatically patch holes in themselves that are 3 centimeters in diameter.
Clever bird mimics multiple species to score meals
Anyone who knows the story of 'The Boy Who Cried Wolf' knows that people eventually stop listening to liars. The same is true in nature: Animals will eventually stop paying attention to others that give false alarms, or those that cry out in warning even when there is no danger. Now, however, a new study in Science shows that one particular African bird is able to trick other species again and again by mimicking the sounds of multiple species.
Hidden diversity floating on top of the sea
Individual cells of the tiny ocean bacteria Prochlorococcus -- perhaps the most plentiful photosynthetic creature on Earth -- are more diverse from one cell to the next than previously thought, a new study in the April 25 issue of the journal Science reports.
How to discover species (without killing them)
It's no surprise that newly discovered species (or even 'rediscovered' species that researchers had thought were extinct) often come from small, isolated populations. This fact means that these new species are already at risk -- but museums and private collectors can make these species' situation even worse, according to the authors of a Perspective article in this week's issue of Science.
How flies escape the swatter
Anyone who's ever swatted at a fly knows how fast the small, winged insects can be. Now, a new study shows how flies are able to make such quick escapes -- and the way they do it is not what researchers had expected.
Whales and butterflies: The migration effect
What do a 40-ton whale and near-weightless butterfly have in common? They both migrate every year, along with billions of other animals like ducks, turtles and moths. Now, a new study in the April 4 issue of the journal Science explains how important migration is to shaping ecosystems on Earth.
The angular control of light
Scientists trying to control light have made progress, a new study in the March 28 issue of the journal Science reports.
Crows and cuckoos: A unique relationship
The great spotted cuckoo is known to be a nuisance. This parasitic bird sneaks its eggs into other birds' nests and tricks the other birds into caring for their young. However, a new study of these cuckoos and of carrion crows shows that the cuckoos aren't all bad: In addition to crowding the crows' nests, they seem to protect the birds from predators.
Despite few food options, abundant assortment of species
A close look at tropical flies and the parasitic wasps that lay eggs inside them reveals an incredibly complex web of interactions, including some that would have remained hidden without new and advanced molecular techniques.
A model for the world's rivers?
A new model can predict how river networks evolve over time, and it might help researchers understand what some landscapes looked like in the past -- or how they will look in the future. And since rivers act as both pathways and barriers for many creatures, this new model might tell researchers more about the ways that rivers affect natural ecosystems.
Black holes give off stronger winds than we thought
Black holes release more energy into the galaxies they live in than previously thought, a new study in the Feb. 28 issue of the journal Science suggests.
With a twist, researchers turn fishing line into muscles
What if the clothing you wore responded to temperature, becoming thicker on cold days and thinner on hot days? Or if the window shutters in your house opened and closed automatically to keep the temperature inside just right? That's the kind of technology that Carter Haines and colleagues show off in a new Science report.
Crazy ants cover themselves in chemicals
The United States Gulf Coast is being overrun by tawny crazy ants. The invasive ant species arrived from South America in the early 2000s and immediately began replacing colonies of fire ants, which had dominated the region since the 1930s. Now, researchers show that these tawny crazy ants have a unique chemical defense that allows them to best the fire ants in battle.
2013 Visualization Challenge winners announced
Art and science have always gone hand-in-hand. So, for the past 11 years, the journal Science and the US National Science Foundation have sponsored the International Science and Engineering Visualization Challenge, which honors 18 groups or individuals who use visual media -- photography, video, illustration, posters, games, etc. -- to promote science.
Chemical tricks in new hosts expand pathogen variety
A pathogen that has spent generations living comfortably in one host can leap to and successfully inhabit an entirely different one, and now a new report suggests the chemical changes it makes in the new host allow it to make this jump.
Nothing sees color like the mantis shrimp
Most mammals have two types of photoreceptors -- cells that convert light into electrical signals -- in their eyes. Humans and many other primates have three. Some birds and reptiles have four. Certain butterflies can even have six. But a crustacean, known as the mantis shrimp, which lives among colorful coral reefs, has 12 different types of photoreceptors in their eyes -- and researchers haven't understood why until now.
No speed limit for soil in New Zealand's mountains
Scientists working in the mountains of New Zealand report very fast rates of soil weathering, a new study in the Jan. 17 issue of the journal Science reports, contradicting previous studies that suggest mountainous soil weathering has a speed limit -- a rate at which it cannot go any faster.
The importance of large carnivores
In the classic film, "The Wizard of Oz," Dorothy and her frightened companions begin chanting, "Lions and tigers and bears -- oh my!" And, to be sure, carnivores like those have scared people (and other animals) for centuries. But, in a review article in Science this week, William Ripple and colleagues highlight some of the benefits that these top carnivores bestow on ecosystems around the world -- and they say that the time to conserve these meat-eating species is now.
Funding provided by the William T. Golden Endowment Fund for Program Innovation at AAAS.