When satellites take pictures of Earth at night, how much of the light that they see comes from streetlights? A team of scientists from Germany, the USA, and Ireland have answered this question for the first time using the example of the U.S. city of Tucson, thanks to "smart city" lighting technology that allows dimming. The result: only around 20 percent of the light in the Tucson satellite images comes from streetlights.
Research by an international team, co-led by the University of Pennsylvania's George Hajishengallis, showed how immune "training" transforms innate immune cells to target tumors. The findings could inform new approaches to cancer immunotherapy or even strategies for preventing tumor growth.
New work by scientists at the Lewis Katz School of Medicine at Temple University shows that the spike proteins that extrude from SARS-CoV-2 promote inflammatory responses on the endothelial cells that form the blood-brain barrier. The study, published in the December print issue of the journal Neurobiology of Disease, is the first to show that SARS-CoV-2 spike proteins can cause this barrier to become "leaky," potentially disrupting the delicate neural networks within the brain.
New research suggests that our immune system may play an active role in shaping the digestive-tract flora, which is tightly linked to health and disease.
In the dark of night, ogre-faced spiders with dominating big eyes dangle from a silk frame to cast a web and capture their ground prey. But these spiders also can capture insects flying behind them with precision, and Cornell University scientists have now confirmed how.
Researchers have demonstrated that they can attract, capture and destroy PFAS - a group of federally regulated substances found in everything from nonstick coatings to shampoo and nicknamed "the forever chemicals" due to their persistence in the natural environment.
In a new study published in EPJ D, researchers define for the first time the precise exact ranges in which positively and negatively charged fragments can be produced when living cells are bombarded with fast, heavy ions.
Vestal Grove in Cook County, Illinois, looks nothing like the scrubby, buckthorn-choked tangle that first confronted restoration ecologists 37 years ago. Thanks to the efforts of a dedicated team that focused on rooting up invasive plants and periodically burning, seeding native plants and culling deer, the forest again resembles its ancient self, researchers report in the journal PLOS ONE.
Several plant lineages living in arid environments have evolved crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) photosynthesis, a water-saving mode of carbon fixation in which CO2 uptake and CO2 fixation are temporally separated. Researchers from IPK Gatersleben and the University of Oxford tested whether full CAM is also necessarily the best solution for C3 crops grown in temperate environments and attempted to identify alternative metabolic modes that best balance the trade-off between water loss and photosynthetic productivity under a range of environments.
Using sophisticated 3D genomic mapping and integrating with public data resulting from genome-wide association studies (GWAS), researchers at Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP) have found significant genetic correlations between inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and stress and depression.