Chinese researchers recently discovered a protein quality control mechanism called "reubiquitination", which could promote the elimination of misfolded membrane proteins, minimize their dwell time in cells, and thereby reduce their probability to form toxic aggregates in human body.
A study from the National Institutes of Health showed that neurofilament light chain (NfL) delivered superior diagnostic and prognostic performance as a blood biomarker for mild, moderate, and severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) when compared to blood proteins glial fibrillary acidic protein, tau, and ubiquitin c-terminal hydrolase-L1. The research was conducted by scientists at the NIH Clinical Center, Bethesda, Maryland, and published in the July 8, 2020, online issue of Neurology.
The precision editing technologies that have revolutionized DNA editing in the cell nucleus have been unable to reach the mitochondrial genome. Now, researchers have broken this barrier with a new type of molecular editor that can make precise C* G-to-T* A nucleotide changes in mitochondrial DNA. The editor, engineered from a bacterial toxin, enables modeling of disease-associated mtDNA mutations, opening the door to a better understanding of genetic changes associated with cancer, aging, and more.
Northwestern University researchers have synthesized a new form of melanin enriched with selenium. Called selenomelanin, this new biomaterial shows extraordinary promise as a shield for human tissue against harmful radiation.
A gene editing tool based on a bacterial toxin can make precise changes to mitochondrial DNA inside cells.
Skoltech scientists conducted a study of milk lipids and described the unique features of human breast milk as compared to bovids, pigs, and closely related primates. Their findings could be indicative of co-evolution of milk composition and the specific needs of the developing organism
To function properly, the heart needs energy from cells' powerhouses, the mitochondria. In turn, mitochondria boost their energy output when calcium levels rise around them, a signal that more energy is needed. A new study shows that a shortage of cardiolipin, a type of fat, in the mitochondrial membrane, prevents calcium from entering mitochondria. The result helps explain heart and muscle weakness in the rare genetic disorder Barth syndrome.
Proteins take on an important function in photosynthesis. In order to be able to work purposefully, they change their chemical form after they have been produced in a cell. The role of the 'driver' is played by enzymes. Researchers have now identified enzymes, which facilitate reactions in a twofold way. The study has been published in the journal "Molecular Systems Biology".
The family of trefoil factor peptides brings hope to both research and industry to improve the treatment of chronic disorders. For the first time, a team led by ERC awardee Markus Muttenthaler from the Faculty of Chemistry of the University of Vienna succeeded in the synthesis and folding of the peptide TFF1. The study was published in "Chemical Communications".
Powerful electrochemical process destroys water contaminants, such as pesticides. Wastewater is a significant environment issue. Researchers say the technology could be readily applied to the wine industry, paper processing and pharmaceutical manufacturing.