Knowledge of the facts is called factive knowledge. In the phrase 'He knows [that it is warm outside]', the embedded clause is assumed to be true. However, in the phrase 'It seems [that it is warm outside]', the embedded clause is presupposed to be false or counterfactive.
Researchers at the University of Warwick have been inspired by the unique movement of trembling aspen leaves, to devise an energy harvesting mechanism that could power weather sensors in hostile environments and could even be a back-up energy supply that could save and extend the life of future Mars rovers.
The system has been validated for non-stick and anticorrosive coatings used in the manufacturing of a wide range of objects from car engines to kitchen utensils.
At the Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, researchers have realized the swap of electron spins between distant quantum dots. The discovery is a step towards applications of quantum information, as the dots leave enough room for delicate control electrodes, enabling integration with traditional microelectronics and perhaps, a future quantum computer. The result is achieved via collaboration with Purdue University and the University of Sydney, Australia, now published in Nature Communications.
Heavy elements are produced during stellar explosion or on the surfaces of neutron stars through the capture of hydrogen nuclei (protons). This occurs at extremely high temperatures, but at relatively low energies. An international research team headed by Goethe University has now succeeded in investigating the capture of protons at the storage ring of the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung.
Two non-fullerene acceptors, namely BTPT-4F and BTPTT-4F, were selected to match with a wide-bandgap polymer donor P2F-EHp consisting of an imide-functionalized benzotriazole moiety, as these materials presented complementary absorption and well-matched energy levels. By delicately optimizing the blend film morphology, an unprecedented power conversion efficiency of over 16 percent was achieved for the device based on P2F-EHp:BTPTT-4F, suggesting the great promise of materials matching toward high-performance OSCs.
Scientists have made observations of a molecular cloud that is collapsing to form two massive protostars that will eventually become a binary star system. The observations showed that already at this early stage, the cloud contains two objects, a massive 'primary' central star and another 'secondary' forming star, also of high mass.
Splitting water into hydrogen and oxygen presents an alternative to fossil fuels, but purified water is a precious resource. A Stanford-led team has now developed a way to harness seawater -- Earth's most abundant source -- for chemical energy.
Nitric oxide (NO) is a central molecule of the global nitrogen cycle. A study by Boran Kartal from the Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology, Germany, and colleagues reveals that microorganisms can grow on NO. Their results, which are now published in Nature Communications, change our view of the earth's nitrogen cycle and how microorganisms regulate the release of greenhouse gases from natural and man-made environments.
Most nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic interventions are more likely than no treatment to improve outcomes for women with either stress or urgency urinary incontinence (UI). Behavioral therapy, alone or in combination with other interventions, was found to be generally more effective than pharmacologic therapies alone. Findings from a systematic evidence review and network meta-analysis of clinical outcomes of nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic interventions for UI are published in Annals of Internal Medicine.