Graphene is an extraordinary material consisting of pure carbon just a single atomic layer thick. It is extremely stable, strong and conductive. In electronics, however, graphene has crucial disadvantages. It cannot be used as a semiconductor, since it has no bandgap. Now researchers from Göttingen and Pasadena have produced an "atomic scale movie" showing how hydrogen atoms can chemically bind to graphene to produce a bandgap in one of the fastest reactions ever studied. (Science 25.4.2019)
In order to tailor nanoparticles in such a way that they can catalyse certain reactions selectively and efficiently, researchers need to determine the properties of single particles as precisely as possible. So far, an ensemble of many nanoparticles is analysed. The problem of these investigations is that the contributions of different particles interfere, so that the properties of individual particles remain concealed. Researchers have now developed a novel method in order to observe single nanoparticles before, during and after an electrochemical reaction.
In a paper published May 3 in Science Advances, researchers at the University of Washington, the US Naval Research Laboratory and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory announced that they can use extremely high pressure and temperature to introduce specific types of chemical elements into the crystal lattice of nanodiamonds -- giving the microscopic diamonds properties that could be useful for cell and tissue imaging, as well as quantum communication and quantum computing.
Researchers have developed a novel and compact method of shaping ultrafast light pulses.
Researchers at the NYU Tandon School of Engineering have devised a way of making organic solar panels robust by performing the molecular equivalent of hair removal by waxing: they used adhesive tape to strip the electron-accepting molecules from the topmost surface of the photoactive layer of the cell.
Currently, information on a computer is encoded by magnetic fields, a process that requires substantial energy and generates waste heat. Researchers have confirmed that bismuth ferrite could store information cheaply and with less wasted energy.
Shock wave studies allow researchers to achieve the warm dense matter that's found only in the extreme conditions around stars and created in the laboratory for inertial confinement fusion research, and researchers in Israel recently set out to understand the relation, if any, between the evolution of a shock wave and the expansion of the exploding wire. They describe their work in the Physics of Plasmas.
Researchers at the University of Bristol have successfully demonstrated the high thermal conductivity of a new material, paving the way for safer and more efficient electronic devices -- including mobile phones, radars and even electric cars.
A team of researchers led by scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI) in Berlin has now been able to follow the flow of angular momentum during ultrafast optical demagnetization in a ferrimagnetic iron-gadolinium alloy in great detail, in order to understand the fundamental processes and their speed limits. The results were published in Physical Review Letters.
Prehistoric Iberians created 'imitation amber' by repeatedly coating bead cores with tree resins, according to a study published May 1, 2019, in the open-access journal PLOS ONE by Carlos Odriozola from Universidad de Sevilla, Spain, and colleagues.