In new research, Judith Steen, Ph.D. and colleagues at Boston Children's Hospital show for the first time that a pathological form of the tau protein involved in the progression of Alzheimer's disease changes over time due to chemical modifications. Observed in brain tissue from Alzheimer's patients, the modified tau forms correlated with stages of dementia. These discoveries likely mean it will take multiple drugs to target the tau protein effectively.
BU researchers were able to artificially dampen fear responses in mice and mitigate addiction-related behaviors.
Hormones are the master regulators of sexual functions in mammals. The hormone oxytocin has a well-established role in social bonding, sexual function, maternal instinct, nursing, and lactation. Researchers from Okayama University have now explored the roles of oxytocin in male sexual function for the first time. Findings from the study suggest that oxytocin-mediated control of male sexual function via the spinal cord may in fact be instrumental in treating erectile dysfunction.
COVID-19 can directly cause neurologic symptoms and long-term neurological disease. Elevations of blood biomarkers indicative of brain injury have been reported in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid of COVID-19 patients. Clinical application of blood biomarkers to improve medical management of COVID-19 patients
Brain or spinal cord injury often results in glial scar tissue that is correlated to neural functional loss. Glial scar is a well-known obstacle for neural regeneration. A research team led by Prof. Gong Chen at Jinan University, Guangzhou, published an article in the current issue of Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience, demonstrating that glial scar tissue can be reversed back to neuronal tissue through NeuroD1-based neuroregenerative gene therapy.
A research team from the Universitat Rovira i Virgili (Tarragona - Spain) has observed that following a diet rich in fats and sugars from ultra-processed foods (such as sweet rolls and pastries) for a six-week period increases the number of inflammatory molecules in the organism, which increases the excitability of the muscle nerves. This is known as musculoskeletal neurotransmission.
Stroke is a leading cause of death and severe long-term disability with limited treatment available. A research team led by Prof. Gong Chen at Jinan University, Guangzhou, China recently reported the first non-human primate study demonstrating successful in vivo neural regeneration from brain internal glial cells for stroke repair. This work was published on Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology on November 5th, 2020.
"There's no place like home," has its roots deep in the brain. Using fiber photometry, scientists are the first to show that home evokes a surge of dopamine in mice that mimics the response to a dose of cocaine. The study demonstrates how dopamine rises rapidly in mice moved from a simple recording chamber to their home cage, but less so when they return to a cage not quite like the one they knew.
New work at the Lewis Katz School of Medicine at Temple University shows that kappa opioid receptors actually are distributed widely throughout the brain. The Temple researchers made this discovery after lighting up the brains of mice using a technique called CLARITY followed by three-dimensional (3D) fluorescent imaging. The study is the first to apply the imaging technique to better understand opioid receptor localization across the whole brain in 3D images.
A team of researchers from UTSA's Neurosciences Institute is challenging the historical belief that the organization of the cortical circuit of GABAergic neurons is exclusively local.