Researchers report two new approaches to producing three-dimensional (3D) images using X-rays that could improve disease-screening, study of very fast processes and enable analysis of the properties of materials and structural information of opaque objects with unprecedented detail.
NIST scientists have now developed a highly efficient device that enlarges the diameter of a light beam by 400 times. Wider light beams have many applications, including boosting the speed and sensitivity of medical imaging and diagnostic procedures.
Earlier this year researchers developed sensing protocols that allow optical fibers to 'listen' outside an optical fiber where they cannot 'look', based on an interplay between light waves and ultrasound. Now they have constructed a measurement protocol that can map local power levels of multiple optical wave components over many kilometers of fiber. This new insight may be applied to sensor systems of longer reach, higher spatial resolution, and better precision.
Gold nanoparticles have been used as an optical probe of high-localization precision, high-speed single-molecule tracking of protein molecular motors. With newly developed dark-field microscopy, researchers in Institute for Molecular Science, Japan, have achieved gold nanoparticle tracking with atomic-level angstrom localization precision and microsecond time resolution. Detailed motion of kinesin, a dimeric linear molecular motor, has been precisely captured at 10 microsecond time resolution, consistent with unidirectional 'rotation' of two heads of kinesin during linear motion.
Scientists from the Max Born Institute have developed the first refractive lens that focuses extreme ultraviolet beams. Instead of using a glass lens, which is non-transparent in the extreme-ultraviolet region, the researchers have demonstrated a lens that is formed by a jet of atoms. The results, which provide novel opportunities for the imaging of biological samples on the shortest timescales, were published in Nature.
Experimental atomic clocks at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have achieved three new performance records, now ticking precisely enough to not only improve timekeeping and navigation, but also detect faint signals from gravity, the early universe and perhaps even dark matter.
NIST researchers have published landmark test results that suggest a promising class of sensors can be used in high-radiation environments and to advance important medical, industrial and research applications.
Researchers from the Structured Light group from the School of Physics at the University of the Witwatersrand in Johannesburg, South Africa, have found a way to use the full beam of a laser light, to control and manipulate minute objects such as single cells in a human body, tiny particles in small volume chemistry, or working on future on-chip devices.
Physicists from ITMO University developed a model of an optical tractor beam to capture particles based on new artificial materials. Such a beam is capable of moving particles or cells towards the radiation source. The study showed that hyperbolic metasurfaces are promising for experiments on creating the tractor beam, as well as for its practical applications. The results are published in ACS Photonics.
This could be a major step towards a better understanding of the functions of deeply hidden brain compartments, such as the formation of memories, as well as related dysfunctions, including Alzheimer's disease. Researchers from the Leibniz Institute of Photonic Technology (Leibniz-IPHT) in Jena and the University of Edinburgh have succeeded in using a hair-thin fiber endoscope to gain insights into hardly-accessible brain structures. This study has been published in Light: Science & Applications.