In a new study published in the scientific journal PNAS, Shomyseh Sanjabi, PHD, and her team at the Gladstone Institutes identified two molecules, Sprouty 1 and Sprouty 2, that modify the survival of effector T cells and the development of memory CD8 T cells. Their findings offer promising potential for immunotherapeutic strategies to combat cancer and chronic infections.
Viral suppression rates have nearly tripled in the US over the past 2 decades, but disparities still exist for younger persons and blacks living with HIV. Researchers say that newer, better-tolerated treatment regimens, such as fixed-drug combinations that include integrase strand transfer inhibitors (ISTIs), have likely contributed to these dramatic gains. Findings from an observational cohort study are published in Annals of Internal Medicine.
Adolescent girls and young women in Mombasa, Kenya are more likely to experience higher risks of HIV and gender-based violence when they are involved with sex work venues or have sexual experiences at a young age, suggests a study co-led by St. Michael's Hospital and the University of Manitoba in Canada.
In a pair of new modeling studies, researchers at University of California San Diego School of Medicine, with international colleagues, examined how policy reform in terms of drug decriminalization (in Mexico) and access to drug treatment (in Russia) might affect two regions hard hit by the HIV pandemic: Tijuana, Mexico and the Russian cities of Omsk and Ekaterinburg.
In a study, a new HIV drug reduced viral replication and increased immune cells in individuals with advanced, drug-resistant HIV infection. Used in combination with existing HIV medications, the drug is a promising strategy for patients who have run out of effective treatment options, the researchers said.
For the first time, scientists have shown that in certain people living with HIV, a type of antibody called immunoglobulin G3 (IgG3) stops the immune system's B cells from doing their normal job of fighting pathogens. This phenomenon appears to be one way the body tries to reduce the potentially damaging effects of immune-system hyperactivity caused by the presence of HIV, according to the investigators, but in so doing, it also impairs normal immune function.
Young transgender women who took part in an intervention to reduce HIV transmission and acquisition had a greater reduction in condomless sex acts than young transgender women who received standard preventive care with testing for HIV/sexually transmitted infections and counseling in a randomized clinical trial.
Nature study found naturally-occurring compound inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6) promotes both assembly and maturation of HIV-1. NSF-XSEDE allocations on the Stampede2 supercomputing system at the Texas Advanced Computing Center and on Anton2 at the Pittsburgh Supercomputing Center simulated atomistic interactions of IP6 molecule with HIV structural proteins. Research opens door for development of new treatments of HIV-1 virus.
"We can now watch antibody responses evolve almost in real time," says Lars Hangartner, Ph.D., a Scripps Research associate professor.
Extended-release naltrexone -- an injection that decreases heavy drinking in the general population when taken in conjunction with counseling -- appears to help HIV-positive individuals reduce their number of heavy drinking days too, say Yale researchers.