Mortality due to prostate cancer is usually related to its likelihood to metastasize, especially to bone. Prognostic biomarkers are urgently needed to predict disease aggression so that appropriate treatment can be selected. A report in The American Journal of Pathology, published by Elsevier, indicates that CCN3, a protein secreted into the extracellular matrix between cells, may be an important factor that promotes prostate cancer invasion of bone and may aid in identifying prostate cancer patients at higher risk of poor outcomes.
Each year, 1 million men in the US undergo biopsies for prostate cancer. The biopsy procedure traditionally has been guided by ultrasound, but this method cannot clearly display the location of tumors in the prostate gland. Now, UCLA physicians have found that a new method, which includes biopsy guided by MRI, can be used together with the traditional method to increase the rate of prostate cancer detection by up to 33%.
In the first prospective study of directly measured body fat distribution and prostate cancer risk, investigators found that higher levels of abdominal and thigh fat are associated with an increased risk of aggressive prostate cancer.
Researchers at SMU's Center for Drug Discovery, Design and Delivery (CD4) have succeeded in lab testing the use of chemotherapy with a specific protein inhibitor so that the chemotherapeutic is better absorbed by drug-resistant cancer cells without harming healthy cells. The approach could pave the way for a more effective way to treat cancers that are resistant to treatment.
First results of phase III international clinical study called TITAN, which evaluated the effectiveness and safety of a new drug, apalutamide, to treat advanced prostate cancers. Researchers found that treatment with apalutamide significantly improved overall survival, with a 33% reduction in risk of death compared to standard-of-care therapy. Additionally, this study showed apalutamide significantly delayed disease progression and increased the amount of time until a patient has to receive chemotherapy.
Findings from NCI-MATCH Arm H, orally presented on Monday, June 3, at the ASCO 2019 annual meeting in Chicago, show that in a heavily pre-treated cohort of 17 distinct tumor types -- several rare -- with BRAF mutations, the combination of dabrafenib and trametinib showed promising activity outside of currently approved FDA indications. NCI-MATCH is reporting results from its 39 treatment arms as they become available. With 11 arms reported so far, three have positive results.
Enzalutamide, an oral androgen receptor inhibitor, can improve outcomes for men with metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer (mHSPC), according to a large study presented by Christopher Sweeney, MBBS of Dana-Farber Cancer Institute's Lank Center for Genitourinary Oncology, during the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Annual Meeting.
Preliminary results from a University of North Carolina Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center study suggest that not enough patients who choose active surveillance instead of treatment for early-stage prostate cancer may be following recommended monitoring guidelines.
For all cancer sites combined, cancer death rates continued to decline in men, women, and children in the United States from 1999 to 2016. Overall cancer incidence rates, or rates of new cancers, decreased in men from 2008 to 2015, after increasing from 1999 to 2008, and were stable in women from 1999 to 2015. In a special section of the report, researchers looked at cancer rates and trends in adults ages 20 to 49.
Intensive radiotherapy can be toxic in 60% of patients with tumors located in the gastrointestinal cavity. Increases in URI levels protect mice against high-dose ionizing radiation-induced gastrointestinal syndrome and enhance mouse intestinal regeneration and survival in 100% of the cases. This finding could be useful to mitigate side effects of other sources of intensive radiation, such as nuclear accidents, nuclear warfare or the exposure to cosmic radiation during space explorations.