A new study has found that sugars in mother's' milk do not just provide nutrition for babies but also help protect them from bacterial infections, making them a new class of antimicrobial agent.
Whether to perform surgery on a fetus is a heart-wrenching decision. This type of surgery involves penetrating the delicate amniotic sac, increasing health risks to the fetus. Now researchers report the development of a glue, inspired by the tenacious grip of mussels on slippery rocks, that could one day help save the lives of the youngest patients. The researchers present their findings today at the 254th National Meeting & Exposition of the American Chemical Society.
Elucidating how body parts in their earliest recognizable form are assembled in tetrapods during development is essential for understanding the nature of morphological evolution. Nagoya University researchers found in eight tetrapod species that the position of the sacral vertebrae and the hindlimbs is determined by the initiation timing of Gdf11 gene expression. This will contribute to a forthcoming model explaining the coupling of spine and hindlimb positioning - a major step in fully understanding tetrapod evolution.
For the first time, scientists have shown that a female fruit fly's pheromone signals can actually tell males how much energy her body has invested in egg production versus in storing away energy for her own survival. And it's a signal that she can't change in order to make herself more attractive.
A protein called COUP-TFII determines whether a mouse embryo develops a male reproductive tract, according to researchers at the National Institutes of Health and their colleagues at Baylor College of Medicine, Houston. The discovery, which appeared online August 17 in the journal Science, changes the long-standing belief that an embryo will automatically become female unless androgens, or male hormones, in the embryo make it male.
EPFL scientists show how DNA is organized into specific regions, and that this depends on a combination of genomic distance and the presence of the CTCF protein.
Going against the general consensus, scientists have unveiled an unexpected mechanism for sexual differentiation of critical reproductive structures during embryonic development.
A worm atlas has been built that profiles gene readouts for every kind of cell in the animal. This is the first time this type of comprehensive profiling for a multi-cellular organism has been created. The study was conducted at a larval stage of the roundworm C. elegans. The resource should have many uses, such as for studies on how genetic instructions guide the formation of body parts.
Expectant mothers may want to consider adopting today's trend towards stress management, in light of new research pointing to its ability to lower the risk of problematic behaviour in their offspring. A team led by Dr. Ian Colman at the University of Ottawa found that mothers who are exposed to high levels of stress during pregnancy have kids who are more than twice as likely to have chronic symptoms of hyperactivity and conduct disorder.
Half of the world's farmed salmon are part deaf due to accelerated growth rates in aquaculture, new research has found. The results now offer a better understanding of the effects of a common inner ear deformity, and some specific actions to tackle this welfare issue.