More than half of the severe listeriosis cases in the European Union belong to clusters, many of which are not being picked up fast enough by the current surveillance system, suggests a new article published in Eurosurveillance. The large-scale study looked into listeriosis epidemiology through whole genome sequencing and found that this method, when implemented at EU-level, could lead to faster detection of multi-country outbreaks, saving up to five months of the investigations.
Less than half of the 201 randomly chosen stores always refused the underage tobacco purchase attempts, and more than one-fourth sold tobacco to the minors two or more times.
America's drug problem may be even worse than officials realize. And illicit drugs are consumed at a higher rate during celebratory events. Those are just two of the conclusions scientists have drawn from recent studies of drug residues in sewage. The researchers will present their results today at the 256th National Meeting & Exposition of the American Chemical Society.
Policymakers and public health experts have long recognized the harm that can come to fetuses if women use drugs during pregnancy. As U.S. states legalize marijuana and as governmental attention focuses on the 'opioid crisis,' state policies pertaining to drug use during pregnancy are increasingly important. A new study examines the scope of state policies targeting drug use during pregnancy, how they have evolved, and how they compare to policies related to alcohol use during pregnancy.
Lung cancer results from effects of smoking along with multiple genetic components. A new study conducted at Dartmouth identifies two main pathways for the role of chromosome 15q25.1--a leader in increasing susceptibility to lung cancer--in modifying disease risk. One pathway is implicated in nicotine dependence. The other plays a part in biological processes such as nutrient transfer and immune system function. The findings increase our understanding of lung cancer cause and development.
A new study analyzes the urban exposome of 30,000 women in nine European cities.
A study of more than 1 million pregnancies in Finland reports that elevated levels of a metabolite of the banned insecticide DDT in the blood of pregnant women are linked to increased risk for autism in the offspring. The study is the first to connect an insecticide with risk for autism using maternal biomarkers of exposure.
A study published in the American Journal of Preventive Medicine found that more than 50 percent of people with assault-related or legal intervention (LI) firearm injuries due to law enforcement actions and over 25 percent of individuals with self-inflicted or unintentional firearm injuries were arrested, hospitalized, or both in the two years prior to being shot. The study's findings contribute important evidence that can be used to reduce and prevent these injuries and deaths.
A study aiming at the development of a dengue vaccine shows that the prevalence of a virus lineage upon the other does not rely on the highest replication rate: it is rather based on the virus' ability in triggering weaker activation of the patient's immune response.
The percentage of low-income Americans with substance use disorders who were uninsured declined more sharply in states that chose to expand Medicaid under the Affordable Care Act versus states that did not, according to a new study. The percentage of low-income residents with substance use disorders without coverage decreased from 34 percent in 2013 to 20 percent in 2015 within states that had implemented Medicaid expansion -- or expansion states -- compared to 45 percent to 39 percent in non-expansion states.