Researchers at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Gillings School of Global Public Health and their colleagues at the University of Texas at Austin and the National Institutes of Health Vaccine Research Center have discovered an antibody that broadly inhibits multiple strains of pandemic norovirus, a major step forward in the development of an effective vaccine for the dreaded stomach virus.
Large numbers of healthcare workers risk transmitting respiratory viruses to patients and co-workers by attending work even when they have symptoms, according to a study published today in Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology, the journal for the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America. The study found that 95% of people working in healthcare settings have worked while sick, most often because the symptoms were mild or started during their workday.
While the precise reasons are unclear, an analysis of overdose deaths in Rhode Island and Connecticut showed that cold snaps raised the risk of fatal opioid overdoses by 25%.
An observational study conducted in a French hospital showed that human contact was responsible for 90% of the spread of one species of antibiotic-resistant bacteria to new patients, but less than 60% of the spread of a different species. These findings suggest hand hygiene is a key, but more methods are needed to fight multidrug-resistant infection. Audrey Duval of the Versailles Saint Quentin University and the Institut Pasteur in Paris, France, and colleagues present these results in PLOS Computational Biology.
The Centre for Substance Use Research estimate the prevalence of awareness and use of the JUUL e-cigarette among adolescents in the United States.
In the first Mendelian randomization study to look at this, researchers have found evidence that excess weight and body fat cause a range of heart and blood vessel diseases (rather than just being associated with it). The study is published in the European Heart Journal.
An estimated half of Ebola virus disease outbreaks have gone undetected since it was discovered in 1976, according to research published in PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases. Although these tend to affect fewer than five patients, the study, led by Emma Glennon at Cambridge University, highlights the need for improved detection and rapid response, in order that outbreaks of Ebola and other public health threats are detected early and consistently.
Half of Ebola outbreaks have gone undetected since the virus was discovered in 1976, scientists at the University of Cambridge estimate. The new findings come amid rising concern about Ebola in the Democratic Republic of Congo, and highlight the need for improved detection and rapid response to avoid future epidemics.
The virus responsible for chickenpox and shingles employs a powerful strategy of immune evasion, inhibiting the ability of natural killer cells to destroy infected cells and produce molecules that help control viral infection, according to a study published June 13 in the open-access journal PLOS Pathogens by Allison Abendroth of the Discipline of Infectious Diseases and Immunology in the Charles Perkins Centre at the University of Sydney, and colleagues.
Alcohol use among Tanzanian youth is rising and the high density of alcohol selling outlets and alcohol advertisements coupled with low enforcement of minimum drinking age laws are likely facilitating this uptick. The volume of alcohol advertising that youth encounter in Tanzania is increasing as competition among global and local alcohol producers intensifies.