Scientists demonstrate that Leishmania adaptation results from frequent and reversible chromosomal amplifications. This novel insight into Leishmania genomic instability should pave the way for the identification of parasite drug resistance mechanisms and help discover biomarkers.
Using a real-world outbreak as a test case, a team combined patient-transfer data and whole-genome sequencing to identify hotspots for transmission of antibiotic-resistant bacteria.
A new study demonstrates that outbreaks of mosquito-borne viruses Zika and Chikungunya generally occur about three weeks after heavy rainfall. Researchers also found that Chikungunya will predominate over Zika when both circulate at the same time.
Research comparing cystic fibrosis patients in the United States and Canada showed that, although patients' nutritional status and lung function improved in both countries from 1990 to 2013, the US improvement rate was faster. Nutritional status and lung function are related to survival in cystic fibrosis. U.S. improvements may be due to implementation of newborn screening, quality improvement initiatives for the disease and better healthcare access under the Medicaid Children's Health Insurance Program, signed into federal law in 1997.
According to a recent University of Helsinki study, disordered eating among young adults has long-term effects on their health. Disordered eating among 24-year-old women and men was an indicator of higher body weight, larger waist circumference and lower psychological wellbeing as well as a lower self-evaluation of general health both at age 24 and ten years later.
A new American Cancer Society study calculates the contribution of several modifiable risk factors to cancer occurrence, expanding and clarifying the role of known risk factors, from smoking to low consumption of fruits and vegetables.
Baby-boomers, those born between 1947 and 1964, experienced an excess risk of prescription opioid overdose death and heroin overdose death, according to latest research at Columbia University's Mailman School of Public Health. Individuals born between 1979 and 1992 were also at significantly increased risk for death from heroin overdose. The study findings are consistent for both men and women.
Cutting the budget of the President's Malaria Initiative (PMI) by 44 percent, as the US Congress has proposed, would lead to an estimated 67 million additional cases of malaria over the next four years, according to a mathematical model published this week in PLOS Medicine by Peter Winskill of Imperial College London, UK, and colleagues.
Confirmatory HIV testing can substantially reduce the number of infants in South Africa who may be falsely diagnosed as HIV-infected and started on unneeded treatment, according to a new study published this week in PLOS Medicine by Lorna Dunning of the University of Cape Town, South Africa, and colleagues. Confirmatory testing is recommended by the World Health Organization and South African guidelines, but in many settings, uptake is low.
New data published today in Immunity further illuminate how some human beings generate powerful, HIV-blocking antibodies. Led by scientists at the International AIDS Vaccine Initiative (IAVI) and The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI), the results offer important insight into a potential AIDS vaccine design.