British researchers have discovered that an epigenetic protein called EZH2 delays the development of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) but then switches sides once the disease is established to help maintain tumor growth. The study, which will be published March 19 in the Journal of Experimental Medicine, suggests that targeting EZH2 could therefore be an effective treatment for AML, an aggressive blood cancer expected to kill over 10,000 people in the US alone this year.
Death rates from breast cancer are predicted to fall in all European Union (EU) countries in 2019 with the exception of Poland, according to new research published in the leading cancer journal Annals of Oncology. In their annual predictions for cancer deaths in the EU, Carlo La Vecchia and colleagues predict there will be 1.4 million deaths from all cancers in 2019.
Researchers have discovered an ingredient vital for proper blood vessel formation that explains why numerous promising treatments have failed. The discovery offers important direction for efforts to better treat conditions ranging from diabetes to heart attacks and strokes.
Exosomes are key to the SOS signal that the heart muscle sends out after a heart attack. Exosomes in the bloodstream carry greatly increased amounts of heart-specific microRNAs -- as seen in both mice and humans. These exosomes preferentially go to progenitor cells in the bone marrow. Inside those cells, the microRNAs turn off a specific gene that allows the progenitor cells to leave the bone marrow and travel to the heart to attempt repairs.
An Osaka University-led team revealed that Ragnase-1 is a key regulator of the self-renewal and differentiation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. Knockout of this gene in mice resulted in aberrant blood cell composition and hematopoiesis, and caused health-related outcomes such as low hemoglobin, enlarged spleen, and early death. This insight into blood cell homeostasis and differentiation could lead to treatments for diseases such as leukemia in which these regulatory processes go awry.
Tel Aviv University researchers have devised a novel biosensor that can isolate and target leukemic stem cells. It can provide a prototype for precision oncology efforts to target patient-specific cells to fight the deadly disease.
The liver is the only organ in the body that can regenerate. But some patients who undergo a liver resection, a surgery that removes a diseased portion of the organ, end up needing a transplant because the renewal process doesn't work. A new Michigan State University study, published in the journal Blood, shows that the blood-clotting protein fibrinogen may hold the key as to why this happens.
In an innovation that may ultimately help to prevent deadly bloodstream infections, a team of biomedical engineers and infectious disease specialists at Brown University developed a coating to keep intravascular catheters from becoming a haven for harmful bacteria.
Scientists from EPFL and the UNIL/Ludwig Cancer Research have found that supplementing diet with nicotinamide riboside, an analogue of vitamin B3, boosts the production of blood cells by improving the function of their stem cells. This can help overcome problems in stem cell-based therapies that treat leukemia and aggressive lymphomas.
Researchers established real-time ultrasonic monitoring of the blood's aggregate state using the in vitro blood flow model. Based on collected data, computer automatically injected a thrombolytic drug if needed. As a result, the system was able to quickly and completely dissolve the forming blood clots. The team believes that their work will help open new prospects for the creation of wearable devices for timely medical assistance to patients with a high risk of thrombosis.