Activating the immune system of the body is a promising form of treatment for cancer. Researchers at the University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital as well as the University of Eastern Finland mapped out the immune landscape of haematological malignancies in a dataset covering more than 10,000 patients to identify drug targets and patient groups which could potentially benefit from immunotherapies.
Researchers from the MDS Group of the Josep Carreras Leukaemia Research Institute and the Munich Leukemia Laboratory map the mutations that can ease and accelerate the diagnosis of Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasms rare malignancies.
A team led by investigators at Massachusetts General Hospital has developed a novel, inexpensive and portable device that can quickly and accurately measure the ability of blood to properly clot (or coagulate).
A team of international researchers has learned that dose escalation of hydroxyurea treatment for children in Uganda with sickle cell anemia is more effective and has similar side effects than a lower fixed dose of the same drug.
Hundreds of patients have been diagnosed and many new genetic causes of disease discovered in a UK National Health Service programme pioneering the use of whole genome sequencing. The study, led by researchers at the National Institute for Health Research BioResource together with Genomics England, demonstrates that standardized sequencing whole genomes of large numbers of people can improve the diagnosis and treatment of patients with rare diseases.
A team of international researchers has learned that dose escalation of hydroxyurea treatment for children in Uganda with sickle cell anemia is more effective and has similar side effects than a lower fixed dose of the same drug. They report in the New England Journal of Medicine that the clinical research milestone removes a major barrier to broadly expand the use of hydroxyurea in low-resource regions like sub-Saharan Africa.
A phase I/II clinical trial by researchers at Stanford University suggests that vaccines prepared from a patient's own tumor cells may prevent the incurable blood cancer mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) from returning after treatment. The study, which will be published June 19 in the Journal of Experimental Medicine (JEM), reveals that the vaccines are a safe and effective way to induce the body's immune system to attack any tumor cells that could cause disease relapse.
Adult Tibetan antelope have overcome oxygen deprivation on the high-altitude Tibetan Plateau through an unusual adaptation in which they permanently express a form of hemoglobin (the iron-containing oxygen transport protein in red blood cells) that other members of the cattle family only express as juveniles or when under extreme oxygen deprivation.
A Japanese research group has clarified the mechanism by which human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) causes inflammation and oncogenesis. The action of the HTLV-1 viral gene HTLV-1 bZIP factor (HBZ) changes the reaction of immune cells (T cells) infected with HTLV-1 to cytokines, resulting in inflammation. This work should contribute to clarification of the mechanisms for the development of HTLV-1-induced malignant and inflammatory diseases, leading to new treatments and onset prevention methods.
Chintan Parekh, MD, of the The Saban Research Institute of Children's Hospital Los Angeles, has led a team of investigators that generated a comprehensive roadmap for how T-cells develop in the human thymus.