Evaluation of three COVID-19 vaccine candidates in 2020-21 during a worldwide pandemic was unprecedented in terms of urgency and scope. Responsibility for the safety, integrity and scientific validity of U.S. trials fell to 12 experts of the federally appointed COVID-19 Vaccine Data and Safety Monitoring Board, who in turn report to an oversight group. This team has now taken the unusual step of publishing details of their review process in The Journal of Infectious Diseases.
A review of more than 9,000 US patients with severe COVID-19 infection showed less than 1% contracted the illness again, with an average reinfection time of 3.5 months after an initial positive test. Those are the findings from a study conducted by researchers from the University of Missouri School of Medicine and MU Health Care.
What exactly triggers a sneeze? A team led by researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis has identified, in mice, specific cells and proteins that control the sneeze reflex. Better understanding of what causes us to sneeze -- specifically how neurons behave in response to allergens and viruses -- may point to treatments capable of slowing the spread of infectious respiratory diseases.
A new therapy prompts immune defense cells to swallow misshapen proteins, amyloid beta plaques and tau tangles, whose buildup is known to kill nearby brain cells as part of Alzheimer's disease, a new study shows.
Public health measures designed to reduce the spread of the COVID-19 virus may have fostered a substantial side benefit: A 53 percent drop in hospital admissions for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), likely due to a drop in circulating seasonal respiratory viruses such as influenza.
Researchers at the University of Kansas found high vaccine hesitancy among women leaving incarceration, a substantial and vulnerable population in the United States. However, a web-based health app proved effective at boosting the group's health literacy.
A study of nearly 550 adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities receiving residential services in New York City found that age, larger residential settings, Down syndrome and chronic kidney disease were the most common risk factors for COVID-19 diagnosis, and heart disease was most associated with COVID-19 deaths.
Various immune cells in the brainstem cause formation of inflammatory nodules
To gain a better understanding of SARS-CoV-2 outbreaks involving care homes with fully vaccinated residents, Charité researchers used an outbreak at a Berlin-based facility to analyze virus-related data and the immune responses of elderly residents following vaccination. The data confirm vaccine effectiveness in the elderly, but also indicate a delayed and slightly reduced immune response. The researchers emphasize the need to vaccinate both caregivers and close contacts in order to better protect this high-risk group.
Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines applied in national vaccination programs protect against most cancers associated with oncogenic, high-risk (hr) HPV types. Two recent studies demonstrate the impact of gender-neutral HPV vaccination in the overall protection against hrHPV infections already with low vaccination coverage.