At least a third of reactions in children with food-induced anaphylaxis to a known allergen occur under adult supervision, according to a new study led by AllerGen researchers in Quebec, Ontario and Alberta. The findings, published in the November issue of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology, reveal that inadvertent exposures to a known food allergen in children are frequent, and in the majority of supervised reactions, adults other than the child's parents were present.
An uptick in reported cases of Valley fever indicates a likely sharp increase in infections next year. At the same time, federal clearance for a rapid assay test developed with assistance from the University of Arizona should help reduce delays in diagnosing the respiratory fungal disease caused by spores found in area soils.
How do immune cells remember an infection or a vaccination so that they can spring into action decades later? Research led by scientists at the University of California, Berkeley, has found that a small pool of the same immune cells that responded to the original invasion remain alive for years, developing unique features that keep them primed and waiting for the same microbe to re-invade the body.
Allergens are widespread, but highly variable in U.S. homes, according to the nation's largest indoor allergen study to date. Researchers from the National Institutes of Health report that over 90 percent of homes had three or more detectable allergens, and 73 percent of homes had at least one allergen at elevated levels. The findings were published November 30 in the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology.
Survivors of the first known Ebola outbreak, which occurred in the Democratic Republic of the Congo in 1976, may be key to development of vaccines and therapeutic drugs to treat future outbreaks. UCLA researchers located the 14 Ebola survivors of the 1976 outbreak who, in January 2016, were still living in the same small, remote villages in the forests of the Équateur Province of northwestern Democratic Republic of the Congo.
In the not-too-distant future, nanoparticles delivered to a cancer patient's immune cells might teach the cells to destroy tumors. A flu vaccine might look and feel like applying a small, round Band-Aid to your skin. These are examples of how innovative biomaterials could enhance vaccines against HIV and other infectious diseases and immunotherapies for patients with cancer or dampen responses in autoimmune disorders, allergies and transplanted organ recipients. A review appears in Trends in Immunology.
Lactic acid bacteria, commonly used as probiotics to improve digestive health, can offer protection against different subtypes of influenza A virus, resulting in reduced weight loss after virus infection and lower amounts of virus replication in the lungs, according to a study led by Georgia State University.
St. Jude Children's Research Hospital and Emory University research offers insight into origins of the T cells that provide enduring immune protection; findings should aid vaccine development and cancer immunotherapies.
Scientists from UTMB and Biomed Protection predicted which H3N2 variants would become 'vaccine resistant', and this prediction has been confirmed during the 2017 Australian flu season. The results published suggest that the current flu vaccine will work better during the 2018 US flu season than the 2017 Australian flu season.
Men who have never engaged in sexual intercourse are still at risk for acquiring HPV, according to a study published recently in the Journal of Infectious Diseases by researchers at the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston School of Public Health.