Two new studies provide evidence that previous Dengue infection in pregnant mothers may lead to increased severity of Zika in babies, and that previous Zika infection in mice mothers may increase severity of Dengue infection in their pups. The research, publishing Nov. 14 in the journal Cell Host & Microbe, supports that maternally acquired antibodies for one virus can assist infection by the other by a process unique to flaviviruses.
The global disease burden of meningitis remains unacceptably high, and progress lags substantially behind that of other vaccine-preventable diseases. The Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME) Global Burden of Disease study showed that meningitis deaths reduced by just 21 percent globally between 1990-2016, whereas other preventable diseases such as measles, tetanus, and diarrhea due to rotavirus saw declines of 93 percent, 90.7 percent, and 57.9 percent, respectively, suggesting that progress in meningitis could have been substantially faster.
Scientists at the University of Liverpool have discovered a new and important function of a toxin produced by disease-causing bacteria that could have significant implications for future vaccine design.
Nearly two thirds of Americans (65 percent) say antibiotic resistance is a public health problem and a strong majority (81 percent) say they are concerned that antibiotic resistance will make more infections difficult or impossible to treat and even deadly, according to a national public opinion survey commissioned by Research!America in collaboration with the Infectious Disease Society of America (IDSA).
Children who receive nursery vaccinations and development checks are less likely to be admitted to hospital during childhood years.
MIT researchers have shown that they can modify antibiotics in a way that could potentially make them more effective against drug-resistant infections.
A culturally tailored multilevel strategy designed to remove barriers to human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination among low-income, mostly Chinese-American adolescent girls and boys significantly increased vaccine uptake.
Last year, a 26-year-old man receiving treatment for leukemia went to a Swiss hospital's emergency room with a fever, a sore throat, and a cough, and was admitted. His condition worsened, and 17 days later, he died from severe complications of measles. The man's weakened immune system was unable to fight off the disease, even though he was vaccinated against measles as a child.
Regular cytology screening (pap or smear test) is still the most commonly used HPV screening method, and can prevent cancers up to age 75 years, although benefits decline with age. For the newly introduced HPV DNA test, which offers a higher degree of accuracy, women aged 55 who have a negative test were predicted to be at low risk of cervical cancer.
Lymph nodes can contain large numbers of tuberculosis-causing bacteria and serve as long-term reservoirs of bacterial persistence, according to a study published Nov. 1, 2018, in the open-access journal PLOS Pathogens by JoAnne Flynn of the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, and colleagues. As niches for persistent infection, these organs are likely to play a larger role in tuberculosis than previously appreciated.