Pneumococci are the most common cause of respiratory tract infections, such as otitis and sinusitis, as well as of severe infections like pneumonia and meningitis. A new study from Karolinska Institutet in Sweden published in Nature Microbiology shows how the bacteria can inhibit immune cell reaction and survive inside cells to give rise to pneumonia.
Scientists at the University of Liverpool have discovered a new and important function of a toxin produced by disease-causing bacteria that could have significant implications for future vaccine design.
Researchers discover that mitochondria play an important role in supporting the immune system's response against MRSA infection.
Nearly two thirds of Americans (65 percent) say antibiotic resistance is a public health problem and a strong majority (81 percent) say they are concerned that antibiotic resistance will make more infections difficult or impossible to treat and even deadly, according to a national public opinion survey commissioned by Research!America in collaboration with the Infectious Disease Society of America (IDSA).
Vaccinia virus, a poxvirus closely related to smallpox and monkeypox, tricks cells it has infected into activating their own cell movement mechanism to rapidly spread the virus in cells and mice, according to a new UCL-led study published in Nature Microbiology.
Researchers at University of California San Diego School of Medicine, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, and international collaborators have evidence that Kawasaki Disease (KD) does not have a single cause. By studying weather patterns and geographical distributions of patients in San Diego, the research team determined that this inflammatory disease likely has multiple environmental triggers influenced by a combination of temperature, precipitation and wind patterns.
Researchers have now published the first estimates of antibiotic and pesticide 'planetary boundaries' in the journal Nature Sustainability. The researchers suggest that if resistance to antibiotics and pesticides goes beyond these boundaries, societies risk large-scale health and agricultural crises. The results indicate one group of bacteria has passed a boundary.
Hepatitis C drugs cure more than 90 percent of patients, but can cost more than $50,000 per patient. Findings from a Loyola University Chicago study could lead to significant cost savings. In 50 percent of patients, the standard 12-week treatment regimen could be shortened to as little as six weeks without compromising efficacy, the study found.
Experts from across Europe have developed a set of competencies in antimicrobial prescribing and stewardship, using a structured consensus procedure. This ESCMID-led study has resulted in a list of competencies that represent the minimum standards that all independent prescribers of antimicrobials should reach to practice according to principles of responsible antibiotic use. The list of competencies is highly relevant for educators, regulators and professional bodies throughout Europe, as well as for individual prescribers.
Patients with X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome type 1 (XLP1) are at risk of fatal infectious mononucleosis. Here, a Tokyo Medical and Dental University (TMDU)-led research team performed detailed analyses of T cells in a family with a mild form of XLP1. They found small populations of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells expressing SLAM-associated protein at normal levels, suggesting that less invasive therapies, which affect fewer T cells, may be useful in treatment of XLP1.