Over-testing for urinary tract infections (UTIs) leads to unnecessary antibiotic use, which spreads antibiotic resistance. Infectious disease specialists at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis made changes to hospital procedures that cut urine tests by nearly half without compromising doctors' abilities to detect UTIs.
Brief summaries of embargoed studies that to publish in Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology, including preventing unnecessary urine tests and treatment, surgical site infections come from patients' microbiome, and nurses role in antibiotic stewardship.
A new observation, led by researchers at the Duke Human Vaccine Institute, highlights the importance of previously unstudied mutations that arises early in bnAbs, giving the antibodies the flexibility to adapt to changes in the virus's outer envelope protein structure. This flexibility enables the antibody to dock on diverse strains of the virus and more potently neutralize them.
In the largest study of its kind, researchers at the University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus have found new clues into the parts of the human genome associated with the higher rates of asthma in those of African ancestry.
Researchers at the Center for Infection and Immunity (CII) at the Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health and the University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia, provide new evidence supporting an association between elevated levels of enteroviruses in the intestinal tracts of children and islet autoimmunity, a precursor to type 1 diabetes. The paper appears in the journal Scientific Reports.
Bats don't only carry the deadly Ebola virus, but are also a reservoir for a new type of influenza virus. These newly discovered flu viruses could potentially also attack the cells of humans and livestock, researchers at the University of Zurich have now shown.
Researchers at Cardiff University have used X-ray crystallography and computer simulation to get a closer look at how viruses bind cells and cause infection.
Mathematical models that quantify the dynamics of infectious diseases are crucial predictive tools for the control of ongoing and future outbreaks. In an article publishing on Feb. 19 in the SIAM Journal on Applied Mathematics, a publication of the Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, Toshikazu Kuniya studies the global behavior of a multi-group SIR epidemic model with age structure and uses the model to estimate the basic reproduction number for Japan's chlamydia outbreak.
The influenza vaccine may be less effective in the elderly because their B cells are less capable of producing antibodies that can adapt to protect against new viral strains, researchers report Feb. 19 in the journal Cell Host & Microbe. With age, B cells and the antibodies they secrete acquire fewer mutations that would provide flexible protection against the ever-changing flu virus.
By studying fish raised in aquaculture, researchers from the Helmholtz Zentrum München, the University of Copenhagen and the University of Campinas in Brazil have shed new light on the mechanisms by which antibiotic resistance genes are transferred between bacteria. According to the study published in the journal Microbiome, those mechanisms are more varied than previously thought.