The controversial Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock Early Management Bundle study adds weight to the belief that early lactate measurements can make a big difference. This follow-up study found a two percent increase in mortality for each hour of delay in patients with an abnormal lactate value.
The case for permethrin-treated clothing to prevent tick bites keeps getting stronger. In new experiments conducted at the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, clothing treated with an insecticide known as permethrin had strong toxic effects on three primary species of ticks known to spread disease-causing pathogens in the United States. Exposure to permethrin interfered with the ticks' ability to move properly, making them sluggish and likely interfering with their ability to bite.
The urgent threat from Zika virus, which dominated headlines in early 2016, has passed. But research into how Zika and other mosquito-borne infections spread and cause epidemics is still very active. In a paper published May 24 in the journal Cell Host & Microbe, an international team of researchers reports new details of how Zika emerged from Brazil and spread throughout Mexico and Central America, with evidence that some locations had more than one outbreak.
According to the World Health Organization, over 216 million people were infected with malaria in 2016, and 445,000 individuals died from the disease. The key to solving this health crisis is early-stage diagnosis when malaria therapeutics are most effective. A new prototype for a portable instrument capable early-stage malaria detection has been developed by a team of researchers at the USC Viterbi School of Engineering.
What are the most (cost-) effective ways to prevent and control communicable diseases in prison settings? In their Guidance ECDC and the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction, present the evidence on active case finding as key measure to diagnose communicable diseases early. The two agencies advise to actively offer testing for hepatitis B and C and HIV to all people in prison and to conduct universal testing for tuberculosis at prison entry.
A new study led by the American Museum of Natural History puts forth the most comprehensive tree of life for malaria parasites to date. Among the researchers' findings is that the diverse malaria parasite genus Plasmodium (which includes those species that infect humans) is composed of several distantly related evolutionary lineages, and, from a taxonomic standpoint, many species should be renamed.
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a major medical problem worldwide, impacting both human health and economic well-being. A new strategy for fighting bacteria has now been reported in the latest online issue of Nature by a research group headed by Professor Ivan Dikic at the Goethe University Frankfurt. The scientists revealed the molecular action mechanism of a Legionella toxin and developed a first inhibitor.
Antimicrobial resistance is on the rise worldwide. This is becoming a problem for infectious diseases like tuberculosis as there are only a few active substances available to combat such diseases. Pharmacists at Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg (MLU) have now found a way to increase the efficacy of a common tuberculosis agent while, at the same time, reducing resistance to it. The research group presents its latest developments in the international journal Molecules.
A cheap and effective tool that could save lives by helping health authorities target mosquitos infected with Zika virus has been developed by researchers from the University of Queensland and colleagues in Brazil.
Before invading the bloodstream, the malaria-causing Plasmodium parasite rapidly reproduces inside its host's liver cells. Duke University researchers show that liver-stage Plasmodium relies on a host protein called aquaporin-3 to survive and copy itself. Inhibiting the function of aquaporin-3 may provide a new way to keep Plasmodium from proliferating and prevent malaria before symptoms start.