Massachusetts General Hospital investigators have identified differences in gene transcription within key immune cells that may distinguish those individuals infected with the hepatitis C virus who develop chronic infection from those whose immune systems successfully clear the virus.
Examining more than 5,000 reports from the New Hampshire Colonoscopy Registry, A Dartmouth research team finds that individuals with both conventional adenomas as well as a subset of lesions known as serrated polyps may be at higher risk for developing colorectal cancer or high-risk adenomas that can lead to colorectal cancer, than those who have serrated polyps or high-risk adenomas alone. Individuals with both serrated polyps and high-risk adenomas may therefore benefit from closer surveillance.
MIT researchers have devised a flexible ingestible sensor that could help doctors to diagnose problems caused by a slowdown of food flowing through the digestive tract. The sensors could also be used to detect food pressing on the stomach, helping doctors to monitor food intake by patients being treated for obesity.
A multi-disciplinary team co-led by researchers from Brigham and Women's Hospital and MIT has developed flexible sensors with the capacity to sense movement and ingestion in the stomach.
Approximately 10 percent of Americans take a proton pump inhibitor drug to relieve symptoms of frequent heartburn and acid reflux. That percentage can be much higher for people with chronic liver disease. Researchers at University of California San Diego School of Medicine have discovered evidence in mice and humans that these medications alter gut bacteria in a way that promotes three types of chronic liver disease. The study is published Oct. 10 in Nature Communications.
Disruptions in the microbiome of the human gut are correlated with several diseases, including obesity and cancer. Yet little is known about the spatial organization of the nearly 1,000 bacterial species in the human gut, which can influence how the species interact with each other and with their host. In a new collaborative study, scientists established a simplified, model human gut microbiome in germ-free mice and revealed its structure through microbiome imaging technologies developed at the MBL.
Medicare Part D formularies allowed unrestrictive coverage for many opioids over the past decade, especially at high doses, including drugs commonly associated with overdose. Because formulary coverage directly affects prescribing, these findings suggest that formularies present on underused opportunity to restrict opioid prescribing.
The October issue of GIE: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy features several new studies evaluating various treatments for Barrett's esophagus (BE). BE is a condition in which there are unusual changes to the cells lining the esophagus. It is believed to be most commonly due to inflammation from gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Sometimes these changes may be considered precancerous. Endoscopic treatments for BE focus on removing or destroying the problematic tissue.
Scientists have determined that fungus may play a key role in chronic intestinal inflammation disorders. They found that patients with Crohn's disease tend to have much higher levels of the fungus Candida tropicalis compared to their healthy family members. A new review published in Digestive and Liver Disease looks at these findings and provides insights into potential new therapeutic approaches using antifungals and probiotics in the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) such as Crohn's disease (CD).
One in three American adults suffers from high blood pressure, or hypertension. The disease can be passed down in families, and certain lifestyle factors such as smoking, high-sodium diets, and stress can increase the risk. In recent years, scientists have discovered that certain gut bacteria may contribute to hypertension, as well.