The first new national guidelines since 2004 on identifying and treating high blood pressure in children and adolescents (aged 3-18 years old) have been published by the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), which convened a panel of experts to produce the new recommendations. The AAP report, offers a series of evidence-based recommendations for pediatricians derived from a comprehensive review of nearly 15,000 medical studies published since 2004.
A new dietary review of 49 observational and controlled studies finds plant-based vegetarian diets, especially vegan diets, are associated with lower levels of total cholesterol, including lower levels of HDL and LDL cholesterol, compared to omnivorous diets. The meta-analysis appears as an online advance in Nutrition Reviews.
Researchers are exploring a novel approach to treating diabetes: implanting a polymer sponge into fat tissue. Their study has shown that in obese mice with symptoms resembling Type 2 diabetes, the implant reduced weight gain and blood-sugar levels -- by getting the fat to 'talk' again. The researchers are presenting their results at the 254th National Meeting & Exposition of the American Chemical Society.
Researchers from Umeå University in Sweden describe a new method to study biochemical changes that occur in the pancreas during the development of diabetes. The method, recently published in Scientific Reports, is based on molecular spectroscopy and can be used to extract biochemical profiles (or 'fingerprints') containing information about disease progression. The method could facilitate improved understanding of the mechanistic processes on molecular and cellular levels that are key to the development of diabetes.
A re-analysis of all-cause mortality in the United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) evidence review for colorectal cancer screening found that flexible sigmoidoscopy reduces risk for death. These findings suggest that the USPSTF guidelines for colorectal cancer screening, which concluded that no colorectal cancer screening methods reduced all-cause mortality, could be reassessed.
Scientists of the German Center for Diabetes Research (DZD) in Tübingen discovered that a fatty liver can cause damage to other organs. In two just-published studies they demonstrate the effects of fatty liver disease on the function of the hormone-producing islet cells in the pancreas and on renal function.
Adolescence can be turbulent period of life, with struggles to establish autonomy, identity issues and risk-taking behaviours. For young adults with a chronic illness such as type 1 diabetes, this transition phase also means they must assume an increased responsibility for their overall health. A study from the McGill University Health Centre sheds light on gaps in transition care practice in Quebec, pointing out a lack of standardized policies across pediatric diabetes centers.
Patients at risk for type 2 diabetes are often asked to exercise, but exercise doesn't help each patient equally. To investigate this variability, a sample of women were divided by their levels of insulin resistance (lower/ higher), a warning sign for diabetes, all underwent high-intensity interval training. The training generally improved all metrics of cardiometabolic health tested. Women with higher insulin resistance more often saw improvements in the measures of glucose and insulin in their blood.
Hemodialysis requires repeated access to the blood. Failure to maintain adequate access to the vasculature is a major cause of medical complications and, potentially, death for these patients. A new study in The American Journal of Pathology provides information about the mechanisms underlying failure of the most common type of hemodialysis vascular access, the arteriovenous fistula. Despite being the preferred approach, there is currently limited understanding of the mechanisms involved in fistula maturation failure.
A high amount and intensity of exercise along with a diet plan resulted in a modest reduction in blood glucose levels among adults with type 2 diabetes, but was accompanied by reductions in the use of glucose-lowering medications, according to a study published by JAMA.