One family of genes allows cells to adapt to daily changes in environmental conditions by adjusting their internal 'body clock,' the circadian clock responsible for regular sleep-wake cycles. The new discovery by University of Tokyo scientists reveals for the first time that circadian regulation may be directly connected to cellular stress.
Studies have found an association between insufficient sleep and the development of insulin resistance, one of the factors that cause type 2 diabetes, and now researchers have discovered a biological reason for this relationship, at least in men: an imbalance between their testosterone and cortisol hormones. The study results will be presented Sunday at ENDO 2018, the Endocrine Society's 100th annual meeting in Chicago, Ill.
Researchers found that the fruit fly blood brain barrier has a molecular clock that makes it more or less penetrable during over 24 hours. Giving mutant flies a drug for treating seizures at night was more effective.
Researchers have identified specific genes that may trigger the development of sleep problems, and have also demonstrated a genetic link between insomnia and psychiatric disorders such as depression, or physical conditions such as type 2 diabetes. The study in the journal Molecular Psychiatry, which is published by Springer Nature, was led by Murray Stein of the University of California San Diego and the VA San Diego Healthcare System.
Circuits in the brain act as an internal clock to tell us it is time to sleep and to control how long we then stay asleep. A new study in flies suggests a part of that clock constantly monitors changes in external temperature and integrates that information into the neural network controlling sleep. The study was published in Nature and was supported by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS).
Cellular energy metabolism also follows the rhythm of the circadian clock. A University of Basel study has now shown exactly how this works by revealing the relationship between the circadian rhythm and the mitochondrial network for the first time.
A new study from University of Colorado Boulder found that preschoolers exposed to bright light at bedtime had an 88 percent reduction in melatonin levels. Anatomical differences in their young eyes may make them more vulnerable to adverse impacts of bright light, the researchers say.
Circadian clocks arose as an adaptation to dramatic swings in daylight hours and temperature caused by the Earth's rotation, but we still don't fully understand how they work. During the 62nd Biophysical Society Meeting, held Feb. 17-21, Andy LiWang, University of California, Merced, will present his lab's work studying the circadian clock of blue-green colored cyanobacteria. LiWang's group discovered that how the proteins move hour by hour is central to cyanobacteria's circadian clock function.
A new study takes a deep look at the connection between shift work and type 2 diabetes. Investigators at Brigham and Women's Hospital leveraged data on hundreds of thousands of people in the UK Biobank to better understand how shift work -- especially frequent night work -- contributes to the likelihood of type 2 diabetes. The team also developed a genetic risk score for type 2 diabetes, examining genetic data for tens of thousands of workers in the database.
Salk scientists discover critical gene activity follows a biological clock, affecting diseases of the brain and body.