HIV DNA remained in the cerebrospinal fluid of half of participants with well-managed HIV (virologic suppression in the plasma), confirming that the central nervous system (CNS) is a major reservoir for latent HIV. Individuals who harbored HIV DNA in the cerebrospinal fluid were more likely than other study participants to experience cognitive deficits on neurocognitive testing.
Effective therapies exist for managing relapsing/remitting MS, but treatment for progressive MS has proved more challenging. Now, a new paper published in the journal Brain from researchers at the Advanced Science Research Center (ASRC) at The Graduate Center, CUNY and Friedman Brain Institute at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai has identified potential mechanisms that may inform the development of therapies that effectively manage progressive MS.
An article published in the journal PLOS Pathogens reports a realistic computational model for the structure and mechanism of replication of prions, infectious agents responsible for mad cow disease and other neurodegenerative disorders of human and animals.
Prozac®, the trade name for the drug fluoxetine, was introduced to the US market for the treatment of depression in 1988. Thirty years later, scientists still don't know exactly how the medication exerts its mood-lifting effects. Now, researchers report that, in addition to the drug's known action on serotonin receptors, fluoxetine could rearrange nerve fibers in the hippocampus of mouse brains. They report their results in ACS Chemical Neuroscience.
Drugs known as potentiators alleviate some symptoms of cystic fibrosis. Researchers recently figured out how these compounds work--a finding that may lead to better drugs that patients can more easily afford.
Medicinal cannabis oil containing both cannabidiol (CBD) and a small amount of THC ended or reduced the number of seizures in children with severe, drug-resistant epilepsy. The children also experienced improvements in their quality of life after taking low doses of medicinal cannabis oil. Researchers believe this could open up a treatment option for children with severe epilepsy who have failed to respond to traditional medications.
Scientists have discovered that a special type of cell is much more prolific in generating a protective sheath covering nerve fibers than previously believed. 'This totally overturns the textbook definition of the way Schwann cells work,' said senior author Kelly Monk, Ph.D., professor and co-director of the Vollum Institute at Oregon Health & Science University.
Joint research team of Professors Jaeheung Cho and Daeha Seo in the Department of Emerging Materials Science developed a technology to control the generation of nitric oxide in cells. Proposed the possibility of additional research related to cell signal transfer.
Most of the 3,000+ mosquito species are opportunistic, but Princeton's Lindy McBride is most interested in the mosquitoes that scientists call 'disease vectors' -- carriers of diseases that plague humans -- some of which have evolved to bite humans almost exclusively. She's trying to understand how the brain and genome of these mosquitoes have evolved to make them specialize in humans -- including how they can distinguish us from other mammals so effectively.
City College of New York-led researchers have published a breakthrough in understanding previously unknown inner workings related to the lateralization of speech processing in the brain. Their study, headed by biologist Hysell V. Oviedo of CCNY's Division of Science and published in the journal 'Nature Communications,' could shine a light on miswiring of brain circuits in neurodevelopmental communication disorders.