A group of Japanese researchers has discovered that neural inflammation caused by our innate immune system plays an unexpectedly important role in stress-induced depression. This insight could potentially lead to the development of new antidepressants targeting innate immune molecules. The findings were published on July 20 (Japan Standard Time) in the online edition of Neuron.
Rats exposed in the womb and during lactation to plasticizing chemicals known as phthalates had fewer neurons and synapses than those that were not exposed, researchers report in a new study. The phthalate-exposed rats had reductions in the size of their medial prefrontal cortex, a brain region that regulates behavior, and showed deficits in cognitive flexibility. The variety of phthalates and quantities used in the study were environmentally relevant to human exposures, researchers said.
A cranberry, honey or a candy bar - which tastes the sweetest? These foods contain sugars that humans can perceive differently. A cranberry seems tart, whereas a candy bar can be excessively sweet, and honey is somewhere in the middle. Now, in a study in ACS' The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, researchers have shown that the perception of sweetness depends on molecular interactions between specific sugars and water in the saliva.
Memorization test and non linear EEG analysis could be helpful in identifying subjects at high risk of dementia at the very early stages of cognitive impairment.
A woman's history of pregnancy may affect her risk of Alzheimer's disease decades later, according to a study published in the July 18, 2018, online issue of Neurology®, the medical journal of the American Academy of Neurology.
In a new study in mice, researchers have identified a key protein involved in the irregular brain cell activity seen in autism spectrum disorders and epilepsy. The protein, p53, is well-known in cancer biology as a tumor suppressor.
New study reveals that a male fruit fly's decision to court or ignore a female stems from the convergence of motivation, perception and chance. The triad affects the balance of excitatory versus inhibitory signals in the brain to influence decision making. Findings may yield insights about addiction disorders, depression.
Each memory is stored in a specific population of neurons called engram cells. When a memory is linked with another to generate an associative memory, two memory traces overlap. At the same time, individual memories maintain their own identities. Using two overlapping fear memories in mice, researchers show that synapse-specific plasticity guarantees both storage and identity of individual memories. They also show that memory traces no longer exist in the brain after complete retrograde amnesia.
Arranging into well-organized fibrillar aggregate, commonly known as amyloid fibril is an inherent property of any polypeptide chain. Amyloid fibrils are associated with a number of severe human pathologies like the Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, type 2 diabetes and many more. This review article includes the recent studies of identification and characterization of possible conformations of proteins which can act as aggregation precursor state (APS).
In this article, together with a review of the literature, we report two cases of imipenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii neonatal meningitis following ruptured myelomeningocele, treated with intravenous colistin with favorable results.