Scientists at Newcastle University have developed a biological system which lets cells form a desired shape by molding their surrounding material -- in the first instance creating a self-curving cornea. The astonishing video shows the cornea molding itself into a bowl-like structure over the course of 5 days.
Knowing precisely where the signals meet and the brain processes them is vital to treating amblyopia, or reduced vision in one eye because the brain and eye aren't working together properly.
Using a novel patient-specific stem cell-based therapy, researchers at the National Eye Institute (NEI) prevented blindness in animal models of geographic atrophy, the advanced 'dry' form of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), which is a leading cause of vision loss among people age 65 and older. The protocols established by the animal study set the stage for a first-in-human clinical trial testing the therapy in people with geographic atrophy, for which there is currently no treatment.
A clot in the retinal vein can lead to severe and irreversible loss of vision. In a report in The American Journal of Pathology investigators utilize a newly developed model of central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) in mice that mimics many of the clinical features of CRVO in humans to study the pathologic effects of retinal occlusion and demonstrate the retinoprotective effects of the peptide adrenomedullin (ADM) and its receptor activity-modifying protein RAMP2.
New research from the University of East Anglia (UK) uses an improved laboratory model to simulate cataract surgery on human donor eyes. During cataract surgery, the eye's cloudy natural lens is removed and replaced with an artificial intraocular lens (IOL). The research team's latest human model allows evaluation of IOL implants under conditions that mimic the inflammation that patients experience after cataract surgery. It is hoped that the model will aid the development of next generation lenses.
Although currently laser surgery is a very popular tool for various vision disorders correction, it is still difficult to ensure proper control over the accuracy, efficiency and safety of such procedures. Therefore, Russian scientists proposed a new method that helps to describe tissue changes after such operations. This method was described in a series of publications in the Journal of Biophotonics, Journal of Biomedical Optics and Laser Physics Letters.
Single lens eyes, like those in humans and many other animals, can create sharp images, but the compound eyes of insects and crustaceans have an edge when it comes to peripheral vision, light sensitivity and motion detection. That's why scientists are developing artificial compound eyes to give sight to autonomous vehicles and robots, among other applications. Now, a report in ACS Nano describes the preparation of bioinspired artificial compound eyes using a simple low-cost approach.
Hundreds of new genes linked to blindness and other vision disorders have been identified in a screen of mouse strains. Many of these genes are likely important in human vision and the results could help identify new causes of hereditary blindness in patients.
Head impacts in youth sports, even when they don't cause symptoms of concussion, are a public health concern because these so-called subconcussive head impacts may result in long-term neurological issues if they are sustained repeatedly. This study looked at changes in measurements of near point of convergence (NPC), which is the distance from your eyes to where both eyes can focus without double vision, in 12 high school football players at 14 different times during a season.
Osaka University researchers revealed that culturing human induced pluripotent stem cells with different isoforms of the extracellular component laminin led to the creation of cells specific to different parts of the eye, including retinal, corneal, and neural crest cells. They showed that the different laminin variants affected the cells' motility, density, and interactions, resulting in their differentiation into specific ocular cell lineages. Cells cultured in this way could be used to treat various ocular diseases.