UAB researchers have solved the last unknown protein structure of HIV-1, the retrovirus that can cause AIDS. Knowledge of this structure, called the cytoplasmic tail of gp41 protein, will further explain how the virus infects human cells and how progeny viruses are assembled and released from infected cells. The cytoplasmic tail appears to play a key role in virus assembly to help incorporate the envelope spike structures into the surface of viral particles.
A new way to predict the energy a person expends walking will help predict and monitor the physiological status of walkers, including foot soldiers. Researchers at Southern Methodist University, Dallas, developed the Army-funded method, which significantly improves on two existing standards, and relies on three readily available variables. Accurate prediction is important because the rate at which people burn calories walking can vary tenfold depending on speed, carried load and whether uphill, at-grade or downhill.
The world's tropical forests are in 'a critical state' in which the extinction of rare tree species could be a tipping point, according to an international team of scientists who have developed an analytical method to map their biodiversity.
New study finds 'messy' microscopic structures on petals of some flowers manipulate light to produce a blue colour effect that is easily seen by bee pollinators. Researchers say these petal grooves evolved independently multiple times across flowering plants, but produce the same result: a floral halo of blue-to-ultraviolet light.
Well fed mosquitoes need to make a stealthy get away to avoid attracting the attention of the victim upon which they have just gorged, and now an international team of scientists have shown that mosquitoes take advantage of their long legs and a wing assisted launch to evade detection.
Could studying molecular biology ever be as fun as watching a Star Wars movie? Two scientists from the Wyss Institute at Harvard University decided to create their own science film to entertain viewers, and ended up making new scientific discoveries in the process. The researchers-turned-filmmakers used a novel combination of computer animation and simulation softwares to create a scientific model that is accurate down to the atomic scale, and hope that their success inspires more scientists to approach their work like artists.
Loading nanofiber sutures with vitamin D induces the production of an infection-fighting peptide, new research shows.
The importance of proteins and metal ion interactions is well understood, but the mechanistic interactions between the two are still far from a complete picture. Researchers at the University of Texas at Austin, are working to quantitatively describe protein-ion interactions using what is called an atomic multipole optimized energetics for biomolecular applications force field. They describe their work in this week's The Journal of Chemical Physics.
Nanopore technology, which is used to sequence DNA, is cheap, hand-held and works in the jungle and in space. The use of this technology to identify peptides or proteins is now a step closer. University of Groningen scientists have used a patented nanopore to identify the fingerprints of proteins and peptides, and it can even detect polypeptides differing by one amino acid. The results were published on 16 October in the journal Nature Communications.
A team of University of Chicago and Notre Dame researchers used simulations and X-rays to conclude that disordered proteins remain unfolded and expanded as they float loose in the cytoplasm of a cell. The answer affects how we envision the movement of a protein through its life -- essential for understanding how proteins fold, what goes wrong during disorders and disease and how to model their behavior.