Blood banks around the world are continually in need of type O blood, which can be universally administered in an emergency. Researchers have identified an enzyme that converts A- and B-type blood to O with 30 times more efficiency than previously studied enzymes. The researchers will present their results today at the 256th National Meeting & Exposition of the American Chemical Society.
A new biosensor allows researchers to track oxygen levels in real time in 'organ-on-a-chip' systems, making it possible to ensure that such systems more closely mimic the function of real organs. This is essential if organs-on-a-chip hope to achieve their potential in applications such as drug and toxicity testing.
Tooth loss is a significant health issue currently affecting millions of people worldwide. Two articles published in the September 2018 issue of the Journal of Dental Research share recent advances in bioengineering teeth.
Researchers from MIT and the University of Naples Federico II found that fragments of the protein pepsinogen, an enzyme used to digest food in the stomach, can kill bacteria such as Salmonella and E. coli. Such peptides could potentially be developed as new antibiotics.
Researchers from the Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO) have shown in a new study that the gene therapy with telomerase that they have developed, and which has proven to be effective in mice against diseases caused by excessive telomere shortening and aging, does not cause cancer or increase the risk of developing it, even in a cancer-prone setting.
Enzymes perform very specific functions and require only little energy -- which is why the biocatalysts are also of interest to the chemical industry. In a review article published in the journal Nature Reviews Chemistry, biologists from Ruhr-Universität Bochum have provided a summary on what is known about the mechanisms of enzymes in nature. Moreover, the authors outline a future vision: artificial biocatalysts that are not protein-based, as they usually are in nature, but which are rather made from DNA.
Osaka University-led researchers constructed integrated gene logic-chips called 'gene nanochips.' These self-contained nanochips can switch genes on or off according to the environment, where photo-reprogramming of the logic operation by UV irradiation is possible. Moreover, the researchers completed proof-of-concept experiments using artificial cells that produced the diagnostics and reactants (the desired RNA and protein) in a confined nanochip, suggesting the potential of autonomous nanochips in future medical prevention and care.
Scientists funded by the National Eye Institute (NEI) report a novel gene therapy that halts vision loss in a canine model of a blinding condition called autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP). The strategy could one day be used to slow or prevent vision loss in people with the disease.
An MIT team has developed a system that can pinpoint the location of ingestible implants inside the body using low-power wireless signals.
Scientists report they have successfully developed and tested the world's first ultrathin artificial retina that could vastly improve on existing implantable visualization technology for the blind. The flexible 2-D material-based device could someday restore sight to the millions of people with retinal diseases. The researchers will present their results today at the 256th National Meeting & Exposition of the American Chemical Society.