Despite their relatively small genome, mycoplasmas can cause persistent and difficult-to-treat infections in humans and animals. A study by Vetmeduni Vienna has shown how mycoplasmas escape the immune response. Mycoplasmas 'mask' themselves: They use their small genome in a clever way and compensate for the loss of an enzyme that is important for this process. This could be shown for the first time in vivo, thus representing a breakthrough in the research of bacterial pathogens.
Tokyo Medical and Dental University (TMDU) researchers revealed that RANKL expressed by osteocytes is essential for the bone remodeling during orthodontic tooth movement. This result can facilitate the development of novel therapeutic strategies in orthodontics.
Obesity leads to the release of cytokines into the bloodstream which impact the metabolism of breast cancer cells, making them more aggressive as a result. Scientists from Helmholtz Zentrum München, Technische Universität München (TUM), and Heidelberg University Hospital report on this in 'Cell Metabolism'. The team has already been able to halt this mechanism with an antibody treatment.
Researchers at Umeå and Stockholm universities in Sweden and Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine in the US have published a new study in the journal Molecular Cell. In the article, they show how the protein CBP affects the expression of genes through its interaction with the basal machinery that reads the instructions in our DNA.
University of California San Diego researchers have developed the first 3-D spatial visualization tool for mapping 'omics' data onto whole organs. The tool helps researchers and clinicians understand the effects of chemicals, such as microbial metabolites and medications, on a diseased organ in the context of microbes that also inhabit the region. The work could advance targeted drug delivery for cystic fibrosis and other conditions where medications are unable to penetrate.
A study published in the journal Molecular Therapy by Christian Mueller, PhD, shows that using nuclease-free gene editing to correct cells with the mutation that causes alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency leads to repopulation of a diseased liver with healthy cells. It has the potential to prevent liver and lung damage from forming in very young alpha-1 patients.
Veterans Affairs researchers say they have found the 'first direct biological evidence' of damage in veterans with Gulf War illness to DNA within cellular structures that produce energy in the body.
A super assassin hidden in every cell forces the cell to commit suicide if it becomes cancerous, reports a new study, the first to identify molecules to trigger a fail-safe mechanism that may protect us from cancer. The mechanism -- RNA suicide molecules -- can potentially be developed into a novel form of cancer therapy. Cancer cells treated with the RNA molecules never become resistant to them because they simultaneously eliminate multiple genes that cancer cells need for survival.
A team of scientists led by Whitehead Institute has uncovered a surprising molecular link that connects how cells regulate growth with how they sense and make available the nutrients required for growth. The researchers' findings also implicate a new protein, SLC38A9, as a potential drug target in pancreatic cancer.
A collaboration between Babraham Institute scientists and AstraZeneca provides new insights into the role of PTEN, a major cancer gene, in controlling cell growth and behaviour. PTEN is the second most commonly altered gene in human cancers, particularly prostate cancers, and this work could help to develop and target new treatments.