Molecular biologists led by Leonid Pobezinsky and his wife and research collaborator Elena Pobezinskaya at the University of Massachusetts Amherst have published results that for the first time show how a microRNA molecule known as Lethal-7 (let-7) serves as a molecular control hub to direct the function of cytotoxic T lymphocytes by putting the brakes on their cell-killing activities.
A University of Guelph professor has identified a protein that enables fish to change the size of their hearts based on the temperature of the water. Understanding how fish are able to naturally add and remove collagen could lead to the development of treatment modalities for humans that enables a more controlled way for the heart to repair itself after a heart attack.
After decades of relative neglect, star-shaped brain cells called astrocytes are finally getting their due. To gather insight into a critical aspect of brain development, a team of scientists examined the maturation of astrocytes in 3-D structures grown in culture dishes to resemble human brain tissue. The study, published in Neuron, confirms the lab-grown cells develop at the same rate as those found in human brains.
Scientists at the University of Stirling have discovered a new type of plant growing in Shetland -- with its evolution only having occurred in the last 200 years.
One of the key questions in stem cell and cancer biology is to understand the cellular hierarchy governing tissue development and maintenance and the cancer cell of origin. In a study published in Cell Reports, researchers lead by Cédric Blanpain (Université libre de Bruxelles, Belgium) identified a novel lineage-restricted stem cell in the mammary gland. In the future, this model will be used to assess whether the clinical heterogeneity observed in breast cancers arises from their different cancer cell of origin.
Identifying the basic cellular malfunction underlying amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and a form of dementia opens the pathway to developing treatments to prevent the disease by preserving neurons.
Scientists reveal that a fault in the process that copies DNA during cell division can cause epigenetic changes that may be inherited for up-to five generations. They also identified the cause of these epigenetic changes, which is related to the loss of a molecular mechanism in charge of silencing genes.
An abundance of an amino acid called methionine, which is common in meat, cheese and beans, may provide new clues to the fetal brain development that can manifest in schizophrenia, University of California, Irvine pharmacology researchers report in the journal Molecular Psychiatry.
Sunbathers may want to avoid midnight snacks before catching some rays.
NIAID scientists studying herpes simplex virus infection have unexpectedly found that inhibiting a cellular enzyme complex, EZH2/1, suppresses viral infection. The researchers then demonstrated that EZH2/1 inhibitors also enhanced the cellular antiviral response in cultured cells and mice. They then showed that EZH2/1 inhibitors suppressed HSV infection, spread, and reactivation in mice and, in cell culture, suppressed human cytomegalovirus, adenovirus, and Zika virus infections. They suggest that EZH2/1 inhibitors have considerable potential as broad-spectrum antivirals.