Researchers have added fresh evidence that early exposure to vaccine-, bacterial- or microbiota-derived antigens has a dramatic effect on the diversity of antibodies an adult mammal will have to fight future infections by pathogens. This antibody diversity is called the clonal repertoire -- basically different single cells with distinct antibody potential that can multiply into a large clone of cells, all producing that distinct antibody.
Living close to natural green space can mitigate some of the changes in infant gut bacteria associated with formula feeding, according to new research published in the journal Environment International. "Not every infant can be breastfed," said Anita Kozyrskyj, pediatrics professor at the University of Alberta. "This is one of the first pieces of evidence for a nature-related intervention that could possibly help promote healthy gut microbial composition in infants who are not breastfed."
An international team of researchers has identified a chain of events that matures the sperm and triggers their motility. The findings have implications for diagnostic and therapeutic research in male infertility and male contraceptive development.
A new University of Alaska-led study provides the first evidence that declines in many of Alaska's chinook salmon populations can be attributed in part to climate-driven changes in their freshwater habitats.
A new study, led by University of Hawai'i at Mānoa researchers, argues that deep-sea mining poses significant risks, not only to the area immediately surrounding mining operations but also to the water hundreds to thousands of feet above the seafloor, threatening vast midwater ecosystems. Further, the scientists suggest how these risks could be evaluated more comprehensively to enable society and managers to decide if and how deep-sea mining should proceed.
An international study led by the Murdoch Children's Research Institute (MCRI) has given hope to families of children born with a fatal heart muscle disease caused by faulty cell machinery.
Findings from an Oregon State University study into the effects of radiofrequency radiation generated by the wireless technology that will soon be the standard for cell phones suggest few health impacts.
Duke researchers have made the first time-lapse movies of the sheet-like mesh that surrounds and supports most animal tissues. While the thin layer of extracellular matrix known as the basement membrane plays key roles in development and disease, visualizing it in living organisms has been difficult to do. The team says their work offers a new way to study basement membrane defects underlying aging, and diseases ranging from cancer to diabetes.
Evolutionary biologists from the University of Konstanz resolve a century-old question regarding the asymmetric genitals of internally fertilizing fishes of the family Anablepidae. Surprisingly, the direction of genital asymmetry in these fishes is random rather than hereditary.
The presence of an abnormal number of chromosomes in the genetic profile of early-stage embryos may be far more common - and potentially less threatening - during normal human development than is currently appreciated, according to new research from Johns Hopkins University biologists.