A new computational tool predicts genes that can cause disease due to the production of truncated or altered proteins that take on a new or different function, rather than those that lose their function.
Scientists at HHMI's Janelia Research Campus have taken detailed pictures of the entire brain of an adult female fruit fly using transmission electron microscopy.
A cranberry, honey or a candy bar - which tastes the sweetest? These foods contain sugars that humans can perceive differently. A cranberry seems tart, whereas a candy bar can be excessively sweet, and honey is somewhere in the middle. Now, in a study in ACS' The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, researchers have shown that the perception of sweetness depends on molecular interactions between specific sugars and water in the saliva.
Arriving at your favorite beach only to discover it's closed because of bacterial contamination can be a bummer. But even worse would be unknowingly swimming in waters polluted with fecal material -- a very real possibility, given that current detection methods can require up to 24 hours to obtain results. Now, researchers reporting in the ACS journal Environmental Science & Technology have identified computer models that provide accurate short-term forecasts, or 'nowcasts,' of beach water quality.
Researchers are developing innovative biohybrid systems with information processing functionality.
An international team of scientists led by Helmholtz Zentrum München and University of Copenhagen has presented the largest study so far on allergic rhinitis in the journal 'Nature Genetics'. The data of nearly 900,000 participants revealed loci in the human genome whose changes significantly increase the risk of disease.
Surprisingly, the functions of a huge number of microbial genes are still unknown. This knowledge gap can be thought of as "genomic dark matter" in microbes, and neither computational biology nor current lab techniques have been able address this gap. This challenge has now been tackled through an international collaboration between the Institute for Research in Biomedicine (IRB Barcelona) and two other interdisciplinary research centres, namely the IJS in Ljubljana (Slovenia) and RBI in Zagreb (Croatia).
A new machine learning framework, dubbed ExPecto, can predict the effects of genetic mutations in the so-called 'dark matter' regions of the human genome. ExPecto pinpoints how specific mutations can disrupt the way genes express throughout your body. Using the method, its creators computed the genetic ramifications of more than 140 million mutations in different tissues. The researchers also precisely pinpointed mutations potentially responsible for increasing the risk of several immune-related diseases, including Crohn's disease.
Researchers using long-read DNA sequencing have made one of the most detailed maps ever of structural variations in a cancer cell's genome. The map reveals about 20,000 structural variations, few of which have been noted before, in just one cell type associated with one form of breast cancer.
An international team, which included three University of Maryland researchers, sequenced and analyzed the genome of Chara braunii, a freshwater green alga closely related to land plants. By comparing Chara's genome to multiple land plant genomes, the team was able to identify many important genes that originated in a common ancestor shared by Chara and land plants.