Some mandarin fish species (Sinipercidae) are pure fish-eaters, which feed exclusively on living juvenile fish - also of their own species. A research team led by the Chinese Huazhong Agricultural University (HZAU) and the Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries (IGB) has described the genome of four mandarin fish species and thus also identified genes for cannibalistic eating behaviour. Knowledge of the connections between the genome and feeding behaviour is of interest for sustainable aquaculture.
In a recent study of genes involved in brain functioning, their previously unknown features have been uncovered by bioinformaticians from the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology and the Institute of Mathematical Problems of Biology, RAS.
Damaged mitochondria are selectively eliminated via autophagy (called mitophagy). Parkin and PINK1, proteins mutated in hereditary Parkinson's disease, amplify ubiquitin signals on damaged mitochondria with the subsequent activation of autophagic machinery. Researchers in the Ubiquitin Project of Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science (TMIMS) discovered that the critical autophagy adaptor OPTN (optineurin) interacts with ATG9A, and this interaction plays a critical role in PINK1/Parkin-mediated mitophagy. These studies were published in Journal of Cell Biology.
Skoltech scientists conducted a study of milk lipids and described the unique features of human breast milk as compared to bovids, pigs, and closely related primates. Their findings could be indicative of co-evolution of milk composition and the specific needs of the developing organism
Researchers from the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Ivannikov Institute for System Programming, and the Harvard Medical School-affiliated Schepens Eye Research Institute have developed a neural network capable of recognizing retinal tissues during the process of their differentiation in a dish. Unlike humans, the algorithm achieves this without the need to modify cells, making the method suitable for growing retinal tissue for developing cell replacement therapies to treat blindness and conducting research into new drugs.
A group of scientists based in France used systematical datamining to gather information on two grapevine trichoviruses, grapevine Pinot gris virus and grapevine berry inner necrosis virus. They were able to capture new complete viral genomes from around the world. They gathered this information using their own HTS-datasets and by tapping into worldwide HTS databases. This compiled information helped unravel the evolutionary history of these two emerging viruses that display a new threat to viticulture.
Researchers at Kanazawa University report in Biomaterials a high-speed atomic-force microscopy study of protein filaments in the nuclear pore complex. The visualization in real-time of the filaments' dynamics is an important step in our understanding of molecular transport mechanisms between a cell nucleus and its surrounding medium.
Using state-of-the-art approaches coupled with bio- and cheminformatics and machine learning, researchers at the GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel have succeeded in discovering new, bioactive components of the Baltic Sea Baltic Sea seaweed Fucus vesiculosus and its fungal symbiont against infectious bacteria or skin cancer.
Researchers from the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Kazan Federal University, and George Washington University have proposed an algorithm for producing patient-specific mathematical models describing the electrical excitation of human heart cells. The study looks at two possible approaches -- one using experimental records of electrical activity and the other based on gene expression profiles.
By mapping molecular changes in the genome over time, UC San Diego researchers developed a formula to more accurately compare dog age to human age -- a tool that could also help them evaluate how well anti-aging products work.