Low levels of physical activity and inefficient sleep patterns intensify the effects of genetic risk factors for obesity, according to results of a large-scale study presented at the American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG) 2017 Annual Meeting in Orlando, Fla. These results confirm and strengthen previous findings based on self-reported activity.
Rare variants combined with background genetic risk factors may account for many unexplained cases of familial breast cancer, and knowing the specific genes involved could inform choice of prevention and treatment strategies, according to findings presented in a plenary session at the American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG) 2017 Annual Meeting in Orlando, Fla.
Research has shown that a mother's diet during pregnancy, particularly one that is high-fat, may program her baby for future risk of certain diseases such as diabetes. A new study from nutrition researchers at the University of Illinois shows that switching the offspring to a new diet -- a low-fat diet, in this case -- can reverse that programming.
A study published in the journal Molecular Therapy by Christian Mueller, PhD, shows that using nuclease-free gene editing to correct cells with the mutation that causes alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency leads to repopulation of a diseased liver with healthy cells. It has the potential to prevent liver and lung damage from forming in very young alpha-1 patients.
Flu viruses contain defective genetic material that may activate the immune system in infected patients, and new research published in PLOS Pathogens suggests that lower levels of these molecules could increase flu severity.
A case control study of armed forces veterans with mild traumatic brain injury or persistent post-concussion syndrome, with or without PTSD, has found significant improvements in persistent post-concussion syndrome and PTSD symptoms, memory, intelligence quotient, attention, cognition, depression, quality of life, and brain blood flow, as well as a significant reduction in suicidal ideation and anxiety following hyperbaric oxygen therapy.
A collaboration between Babraham Institute scientists and AstraZeneca provides new insights into the role of PTEN, a major cancer gene, in controlling cell growth and behaviour. PTEN is the second most commonly altered gene in human cancers, particularly prostate cancers, and this work could help to develop and target new treatments.
A study by UC San Diego biologists uncovered a new mechanism linking a human gene's function to chronic inflammation. Through large-scale genomic analyses, the researchers discovered that 'mutant p53' amplifies the impact of inflammation, leading to increases in the invasive behavior of cancer. Thus, rather than fighting tumor growth, mutant forms of p53 appear to be tapping into the body's immune response system to fuel pro-inflammatory responses that increase cancer growth.
For the first time, scientists have provided unbiased estimates of the number of mutations needed for cancers to develop, in a study of more than 7,500 tumors across 29 cancer types. Researchers from the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute and their collaborators adapted a technique from the field of evolution to confirm that, on average, one to ten driver mutations are needed for cancer to emerge. The results are published today in Cell.
Adolescents display a complex and nuanced understanding of the issues around pediatric genetic testing for conditions that do not appear until adulthood, according to findings presented at the American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG) 2017 Annual Meeting in Orlando, Fla. Researchers qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed essays submitted to ASHG's 2016 DNA Day Essay Contest.