Scientists at Karolinska Institutet in Sweden and University of North Carolina, USA, have identified the cell types underlying schizophrenia in a new study published in Nature Genetics. The findings offer a roadmap for the development of new therapies to target the condition.
Using baker's yeast, a team at Harvard's Wyss Institute developed a CRISPR-Cas9-based high-throughput approach that allows researchers to precisely alter hundreds of different genes or features of a single gene at once in individual yeast cells with 80 to 100% efficiency, select cells from the population that show specific behaviors, and identify the gene alterations that either trigger or prevent them.
Genome structure of dinosaurs discovered by bird-turtle comparisons A discovery by scientists at the University of Kent has provided significant insight into the overall genome structure of dinosaurs. By comparing the genomes of different species, chiefly birds and turtles, the Kent team were able to determine how the overall genome structure (i.e. the chromosomes) of many people's favourite dinosaur species - like Velociraptor or Tyrannosaurus - might have looked through a microscope.
Innate behaviors are genetically encoded, but their underlying molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. University of Tsukuba researchers conducted a large-scale forward genetics screening and detected an unexpected chemosensor pathway. The work establishes the first forward genetics screen to uncover the molecular mechanism of innate fear, a basic emotion and evolutionarily conserved survival mechanism.
A study led by scientists from King's College London, University College London, Massachusetts Eye and Ear and Harvard Medical School has identified 133 genetic variants that could help predict the risk of developing glaucoma, the world's leading cause of incurable blindness.
A team of researchers led by a University of California, Riverside, scientist has found that various stages of the development of human malaria parasites, including stages involved in malaria transmission, are linked to epigenetic features and how chromatin -- the complex of DNA and proteins within the nucleus -- is organized and structured in these parasites.
In a paper published in the journal Nature Review Genetics an international team of five scientists collate the evidence for the mismatch between past evolutionary adaptation and our modern lives. They also ask whether natural selection linked to modernization might reduce globally the burden of some chronic diseases.
Acute myeloid leukemia is an aggressive form of blood cancer. The diseased cells often carry mutated forms of a specific gene, which is known to function within large protein networks. Applying a combination of proteomic and genomic screens, researchers at CeMM and LBI-CR identified a protein crucial for the survival of the cancer cells. When this protein is lost, AML cells stop growing and accumulate DNA damage, which makes them more sensitive to anti-cancer drugs.
By destroying the regulatory genes of the AIDS virus HIV-1 using the genome editing system CRISPR/Cas9, a Japanese research group has succeeded in blocking the production of HIV-1 by infected cells.
USC researchers have pinpointed a remedy to thwart a protein that helps the metastatic spread of breast cancer, a leading cause of death for women. The findings appear today in Nature Communications.