Materials exposed to neutron radiation tend to experience significant damage. At the nanoscale, these incident neutrons collide with a material's atoms, which then collide with each other. The resulting disordered atomic network resembles those seen in some glassy materials, which has led many in the field to use them in nuclear research. But the similarities between the materials may not be as useful as previously thought, according to this week's The Journal of Chemical Physics.
First launched in 1977 as as means to quickly disseminate the latest in optics research and provide the optics and photonics community with a true Letters-style publication, Optics Letters has, over the course of its long history, published influential papers in nonlinear optics, ultrafast spectroscopy, fiber optics, optical communication, and biomedical optics among other areas. This year the Journal celebrates its 40th anniversary and The Optical Society (OSA) has launched a special website to highlight this milestone.
A team of physicists has discovered that a coating of lithium oxide on the inside of fusion machines known as tokamaks absorbs as much deuterium as pure lithium does.
In a recent experiment performed at the Radioactive Isotope Beam Factory at RIKEN, an international collaboration with scientists from eleven countries, led by scientists of the Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC (Spain) and the RIKEN Nishina Center (Japan), made a very surprising observation: High-energy gamma rays -- which are mediated by the electromagnetic force -- are emitted in the decay of a certain excited nucleus -- tin 133, in competition with neutron emission, the decay mode mediated by the strong nuclear force.
PPPL physicists have simulated the spontaneous transition of turbulence at the edge of a fusion plasma to the high-confinement mode that sustains fusion reactions. The research was achieved with the extreme-scale plasma turbulence code XGC developed at PPPL in collaboration with a nationwide team.
Quantum field theories are often hard to verify in experiments. Now, there is a new way of putting them to the test. Scientists have created a quantum system consisting of thousands of ultra cold atoms. By keeping them in a magnetic trap on an atom chip, this atom cloud can be used as a 'quantum simulator', which yields new insights into some of the most fundamental questions of physics.
Physicists from Tomsk Polytechnic University are creating protective titanium nitride-based coatings for shells of fuel elements (fuel rods) of nuclear reactors. Such shells can significantly reduce hydrogenation of containers in which nuclear fuel is placed, extend their service life and protect reactor from explosion like at the Fukusima radiation disaster.
For the first time, scientists have succeeded in studying the strength of hydrogen bonds in a single molecule using an atomic force microscope. Researchers from the University of Basel's Swiss Nanoscience Institute network have reported the results in the journal Science Advances.
PPPL physicists have helped develop a new computer model of plasma stability in doughnut-shaped fusion machines known as tokamaks. The new model incorporates recent findings gathered from related research efforts and simplifies the physics involved so computers can process the program more quickly. The model could help scientists predict when a plasma might become unstable and then avoid the underlying conditions.
Anomalies occur at sub-atomic scale, as nuclei collide and scatter off into each other -- an approach used to explore the properties of atomic nuclei. The most basic kind is called 'elastic scattering,' in which interacting particles emerge in the same state after they collide. Raymond Mackintosh from Open University, contends in a paper published in EPJ A that a new approach to analyzing such data harbors potential new interpretations of fundamental information about atomic nuclei.