By means of precision measurements on a single proton, scientists have been able to improve the precision of the measurement of the mass of the proton by a factor of three and also corrected the existing value, finding it is significantly lighter than previously believed.
Skyrmions are a kind of nanomagnet, comprised of a spin-correlated ensemble of electrons acting as a topological magnet on certain microscopic surfaces. The precise properties, like spin orientation, of such nanomagnets can store information. But how might you go about moving or manipulating these nanomagnets at will to store the data you want? New research demonstrates such read/write ability using bursts of electrons, encoding topological energy structures robustly enough for potential data storage applications.
Are density distributions of the vast universe and the nature of smallest particles related? In a recent research, scientists from HKUST and Harvard University revealed the connection between those two aspects, and argued that our universe could be used as a particle physics 'collider' to study the high energy particle physics. Their findings mark the first step of cosmological collider phenomenology and pave the way for future discovery of new physics unknown yet to mankind.
The presence of carbonates in the Earth's mantle is known from diamond inclusions, but how carbon is transported there remains a mystery. An international team has shed light on this mystery thanks to high-pressure experiments carried out at the European Synchrotron. The scientists revealed two new iron carbonate compounds and found that self-oxidation-reduction reactions could preserve carbonates in the mantle, hence becoming a potential carbon carrier down to the top of the Earth's core.
The concentration of ultrafine particles less than 50 nanometers in diameter rose by one-third in the air of São Paulo, Brazil, when higher ethanol prices induced drivers to switch from ethanol to gasoline, according to a new study by a Northwestern University chemist, a National University of Singapore economist and two University of São Paulo physicists. The research team also found when drivers switched back to ethanol because prices had gone down, the concentration of ultrafine particles also went down.
Scientists from EPFL and PSI have shown experimentally, for the first time, a quantum phase transition in strontium copper borate, the only material to date that realizes a famous quantum many-body model.
Scientists from the QUEST Institute at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) have presented a model system which allows the investigation of atomic-scale friction effects and friction dynamics that are similar to those taking place, e.g., in proteins, DNA strands and other deformable nanocontacts. This model system consists of laser-cooled ions, which arrange themselves in so-called Coulomb crystals.
Basic processes in chemistry and biology involve protons in a water environment. Water structures accommodating protons and their motions have so far remained elusive. Applying ultrafast vibrational spectroscopy, Dahms et al. map fluctuating proton transfer motions and provide direct evidence that protons in liquid water are predominantly shared by two water molecules. Femtosecond proton elongations within a hydration site are 10 to 50 times faster than proton hopping to a new site, the elementary proton transfer step in chemistry.
Information technologies of the future will likely use electron spin -- rather than electron charge -- to carry information. But first, scientists need to better understand how to control spin and learn to build the spin equivalent of electronic components and tools. Now, Harvard researchers have developed a technique to control and measure spin voltage, known as spin chemical potential. The technique, which uses atomic-sized defects in diamonds is essentially a nanoscale spin multimeter that allows measurements in chip-scale devices.
Charged surfaces submerged in electrolyte solutions can sometimes become oppositely charged. This nonintuitive phenomenon happens when excess counter ions adsorb to the surface. In certain situations, theory predicts a highly charged surface not only changes sign, but can become more highly charged than the original surface. This is known as giant charge reversal, but remains controversial and has never been observed experimentally. Results are reported in this week's Journal of Chemical Physics.