The Advancing Cryptococcal Meningitis Treatment for Africa (ACTA) trial funded by the Medical Research Council (UK) and ANRS (France) has highlighted the benefits of new therapeutic regimens in the treatment of cryptococcal meningitis, a frequent and severe opportunistic disease in patients living with HIV. In light of these findings, reported in the March 15, 2018, issue of the New England Journal of Medicine, the WHO has changed its guidelines regarding treatment of this fungal infection.
The burden of yellow fever in any given area is known to be heavily dependent on climate, particularly rainfall and temperature which can impact both mosquito life cycle and viral replication. Now, researchers from Imperial College London and the World Health Organization (WHO) have developed a new model to quantify yellow fever dynamics across Africa using not only annual averages of these climatic measures, but seasonal dynamics. Their work is described in PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases.
Scientists at The University of Manchester have cast new light on a little understood group of worm infections, which collectively afflicts 1 in 4 people, mainly children -- in the developing the world.
Researchers are developing a promising alternative to antibiotic treatment for infections caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae bacteria resistant to carbapenem antibiotics. The approach uses antibodies to target the K. pneumoniae protective capsule polysaccharide, allowing immune system cells called neutrophils to attack and kill the bacteria. The early stage, in vitro research was conducted by scientists at NIAID's Rocky Mountain Laboratories and the New Jersey Medical School-Rutgers University.
In the April edition of the Journal of Clinical Investigation, a team led by Associate Professor John Miles from James Cook University and Cardiff University's Professor Andrew Sewell describe how they engineered a new vaccine production platform and built a fully synthetic flu vaccine.
A team of Michigan State University scientists has created a new app and hardware for smartphones to measure blood pressure with accuracy that may rival arm-cuff devices. The technology, published in the current issue of Science Translational Medicine, also includes a discovery of a more convenient measurement point.
Malaria infections might be brought under control by managing the meal times of infected people or animals, a study suggests.
A new study indicates that the kinds of microbes living in the gut influence the severity and recurrence of parasitic worm infections in developing countries. The findings, by researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis, suggest that manipulating the gut's microbial communities may protect against intestinal parasites, which affect more than 1 billion people worldwide.
Worm infections were worse in mice living outdoors versus the lab, providing evidence that environment influences how the immune system responds to pathogens.
A simple dietary supplement (L-arginine) was found to improve birth outcomes, paving the way for future clinical trials to test this inexpensive and safe intervention.