Because of the very low nitrate levels found in arctic tundra soil, scientists had assumed that plants in this biome do not use nitrate. But a new study co-authored by four Marine Biological Laboratory (MBL) Ecosystems Center scientists challenges this notion. The study has important implications for predicting which arctic plant species will dominate as the climate warms, as well as how much carbon tundra ecosystems can store.
Climate change and other environmental factors are more threatening to fish diversity than predators, according to new research from the University of Guelph. It is a surprising and important finding, as humans rely upon freshwater lakes for more than one-fifth of their protein needs worldwide, says lead author Prof. Andrew MacDougall in U of G's Department of Integrative Biology.
Researchers of the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, have obtained new chronological data for the timing of the Elsterian and Saalian glacial cycles in central Germany. They found that the first Quaternary glaciation, which covered huge parts of Europe in ice, occurred as early as 450,000 years ago and not - as previously thought - around 350,000 years ago. The researcher further showed that once these glaciers had retreated, the first people appeared in central Germany around 400,000 years ago.
After three years of work by more than 550 leading experts from over 100 countries, the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) today published assessments of biodiversity and ecosystem services worldwide (except the poles and open oceans), divided into four major regions. IPBES, with 129 State Members, says biodiversity continues to decline in every region of the world, endangering economies, livelihoods, food security and the quality of life of people everywhere.
Soil salinity poses a major threat to food security, greatly reducing the yield of agricultural crops. Rising global temperatures are expected to accelerate the buildup of salt in soil, placing an increasing burden on agricultural production. In a new study published in The Plant Cell, a team of researchers identified a gene that limits yield losses in rice plants exposed to salt stress and deciphered the underlying mechanism.
A recent study from researchers at the University of Montana, National Audubon Society, Oregon State University and East Cascades Audubon Society shows food sources for migratory birds decline with low water levels and high salt content in lakes.
With the ability to leech heavy metals from the environment and digest a potent greenhouse gas, methanotrophic bacteria pull double duty when it comes to cleaning up the environment. But before researchers can explore potential conservation applications, they first must better understand the bacteria's basic physiological processes. Amy Rosenzweig's laboratory at Northwestern University has identified two never-before-studied proteins, called MbnB and MbnC, as partially responsible for the bacteria's inner workings.
Around 7,600 years ago, the emergence of agricultural settlements in Southeastern Europe and subsequent progress of civilization suddenly came to a standstill. This was most likely caused by an abrupt sea level rise in the northern Aegean Sea. German Researchers in Frankfurt and colleagues of the University of Toronto have now detected evidence in the fossils of tiny calcifying marine algae preserved in seafloor sediments.
You really can extract clean drinking water right from the air, even in the driest of deserts, MIT researchers have found. They've demonstrated a real-world version of a water-harvesting system based on metal organic frameworks, or MOFs, that they first described last year.
Researchers at the University of New Hampshire say the landscape may also hold answers to how glaciers helped form the current terrain and provide insight into the progression of climate change.