In a study with mice, a gene therapy developed in Brazil kills cancer cells and avoids adverse side effects when combined with chemotherapy.
Researchers at Karolinska Institutet in Sweden have studied which genes are expressed in overactive immune cells in mice with asthma-like inflammation of the airways. Their results, which are published in the journal Immunity, suggest that the synthesis and breakdown of fats plays an important part in the process.
How did humans get to be so much fatter than our closest primate relatives, despite sharing 99% of the same DNA? A new study suggests that part of the answer may have to do with an ancient molecular shift in how DNA is packaged inside fat cells, which curbed our body's ability to turn 'bad' white fat into 'good' brown fat.
Genes which are specific to a species or group of species can reflect important genetic changes within lineages. Often, such lineage-specific genes are found to play a role within sexual reproduction, thus promoting reproductive isolation and, consequently, speciation. Whilst investigating the Jekyll gene which is essential for the procreation of barley, researchers from the IPK in Gatersleben have discovered that Jekyll occurs in form of two highly divergent allelic variants.
WSU researchers have identified an ice worm on Vancouver Island that is closely related to ice worms 1,200 miles away in southern Alaska. The researchers believe the genetic intermingling is the result of birds carrying the glacier-bound worms (or their eggs) up and down the west coast.
For the first time, researchers have decoded in two large studies the genetic programs that control the evolution of major organs in humans and other selected mammals before and after birth. Molecular biologists at Heidelberg University demonstrated that all the organs studied exhibit fundamental and original gene activity networks that must have originated early on in mammalian evolution.
A group of scientists from Japan -- led by Professor Takashi Kamakura of Tokyo University of Science -- has demonstrated, for the first time, the molecular and cellular basis of the 'adverse' effects of the antibiotic chloramphenicol on eukaryotic cells.
After managing to obtain DNA from two 120,000-year-old European Neandertals, researchers report that these specimens are more genetically similar to Neandertals that lived in Europe 80,000 year later than they are to a Neandertal of similar age found in Siberia. The findings, which reveal a stable, 80,000-year ancestry for European Neandertals, also suggest that this group may have migrated east and replaced some Siberian Neandertal populations.
A new study from researchers at the University of Michigan Rogel Cancer Center finds that the gene FOXA1 overrides normal biology in three different ways to drive prostate cancer. They refer to the three classes as FAST, FURIOUS, and LOUD to reflect their unique features.
Parts of the genomes of two ~120,000-year-old Neandertals from Germany and Belgium have been sequenced at the MPI for Evolutionary Anthropology. The analyses showed that the last Neandertals, who lived around 40,000 years ago, trace at least part of their ancestry back to these European Neandertals that lived around 80,000 years earlier. The 120,000-year-old Neandertal from Germany, however, carried some ancestry that may originate from an isolated Neandertal population or from relatives of modern humans.