New study explains previously mysterious characteristics of ribosomes, the protein production factories of the cell. Researchers mathematically demonstrate that ribosomes are precisely structured to build themselves as quickly as possible to support efficient cell growth.
-Researchers have shown that a single nucleotide change in a gene that affects production of hepcidin--a peptide involved in inflammation, immunity, and control of iron levels--is associated with greater susceptibility to extrapulmonary tuberculosis.
In saliva, scientists have found hints that a 'ghost' species of archaic humans may have contributed genetic material to ancestors of people living in sub-Saharan Africa today. The research adds to a growing body of evidence suggesting that sexual rendezvous between different archaic human species may not have been unusual.
Researchers at Ruhr-Universität Bochum and the Freie Universität Berlin have clarified the crucial catalytic step in the production of hydrogen by enzymes. The enzymes, called [FeFe]-hydrogenases, efficiently turn electrons and protons into hydrogen. They are thus a candidate for the biotechnological production of the potential energy source. 'In order to produce hydrogen on an industrial scale with the aid of enzymes, we must precisely understand how they work,' says Professor Thomas Happe, one of the authors of the study.
Researchers at the University of Zurich have shown for the first time that hematopoietic stem cells detect infectious agents themselves and begin to divide -- that is, without signals from growth factors. This direct production of defensive cells damages hematopoiesis in the long term, however, which could lead to malignant hematopoietic stem cell diseases at advanced age.
The presence of a germline mutation in the GOT2 gene found in a patient with metastasis gives rise to increased activity of the encoder enzyme. Furthermore, the authors describe extraordinarily rare mutations in two patients: one in the SDHC gene and another in the IDH1. Finally, by way of an extension study focused on more than 60 patients with these neuroendocrine tumors, a new susceptibility gene, IDH3B, associated with the development of paragangliomas was identified.
Municipal wastewater may become a key ally in the fight against antibiotic-resistant disease-causing bacteria and fungi, a new study at Stellenbosch University (SU) in South Africa found.
Probiotics, being live microbes, exert numerous beneficial health effects on the host cells. Such probiotics are commercially available as dietary supplements, foods, pharmaceutical formulations. Yakult, Activia yogurt, DanActive fermented milk provide health benefits like boosting up the immune system, treating digestive problems, mental illness, neurological disorders, cancer, etc.
CRISPR, the gene-editing technology that has taken biology by storm, is now more powerful than ever. Scientists have assembled a library of RNA sequences that can be used by researchers to direct the CRISPR-cas9 complex to cut DNA with exquisite, unprecedented precision.
New research by Columbia scientists offers fresh insight into how the brain tells the body to move, from simple behaviors like walking, to trained movements that may take years to master. The discovery in mice advances knowledge of how cells in the motor cortex -- the brain's movement center -- communicate with muscles, and may help researchers better understand what happens in injury or disease, when the mechanisms that underlie movement go awry.