New research conducted in the Cognitive Neuroscience group of SISSA shows that a perceptual decision -- recognizing an object and taking the appropriate action -- is triggered as soon as the brain's processing networks accumulate the exact right quantity of sensory information. The studies uncover fundamental brain mechanisms underlying decision making in an uncertain world.
An international research team led by The University of Tokyo modeled the growth of cerebral tracts. Using neurons derived from stem cells, they grew cortical-like spheroids. In a microdevice, the spheroids extended bundles of axons toward each other, forming a physical and electrical connection. Fascicles grew less efficiently when one spheroid was absent, and when a gene relevant to cerebral tract formation was knocked-down. The study further illuminates brain growth and developmental disorders.
A new study shows that a synthetic molecule developed by Oregon Health & Science University scientists stimulates repair of the protective sheath that covers nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord. The study demonstrates in mice that a synthetic molecule called sobetirome efficiently repairs damaged myelin without side effects.
Two papers appearing April 18, 2019 in the journal Cell Metabolism confirm that the circadian clock is an important factor in how the body responds to physical exertion. Based on this work alone, it's too early to say when the best time is for you to go for a jog. But at least in the lab, exercise in the evening seems to be more productive, although human lifestyles are much more complicated.
Physical traits and behaviors that make a lizard sexy -- features used to attract potential mates and fend off competitors -- may be important enough that they do not change in the face of stress, according to Penn State researchers.
Based on the analysis of the genomes of more than a dozen flightless birds, including an extinct moa, a team led by Harvard researchers found that while different species show wide variety in the protein-coding portions of their genome, they appear to turn to the same regulatory pathways when evolving flight loss.
Researchers have developed a high-tech support system that can keep a large mammalian brain from rapidly decomposing in the hours after death, enabling study of certain molecular and cellular functions. With funding through the NIH BRAIN Initiative, researchers developed a way to deliver an artificial blood supply to the isolated postmortem brain of a pig, preventing the degradation that would otherwise destroy many cellular and molecular functions and render it unsuitable for study.
Involuntary staying, a type of housing trap, is a common experience among people living on housing estates, since around one in three residents feel that they are trapped in their current residential arrangements. More than half of them would like to move away from their current neighborhoods. According to the residents own estimation, the most common cause for involuntary staying is economic but the overall housing market situation also has an effect. This is according to a recent study by the University of Helsinki.
In a paper recently published in the journal Biological Conservation, an international team of conservationists highlights the importance of tree dens as a choice for pandas raising infants in native habitats. The study, conducted in Fengtongzai Reserve in China, analyzed the difference in microhabitats of cave dens and tree dens used by female pandas. The result of the research suggests that conservation efforts need to take into account species use of microhabitats and habitat features as well as overall ecological systems.
First major multisite randomized controlled trial of a workplace wellness program shows mixed results at 18 months. Program led employees to increase exercise and improve weight-management habits, but it had no effect on health outcomes Program did not improve worker absenteeism, tenure or job performance. Program did not reduce employees' use of health care services or health care spending in the short term.