Vision is essential for the survival of most animal species and tears provide potentially life-saving protection for the eyes. A new first-of-its-kind study looks at the composition of bird and reptile tears and compares these findings to human tears. These results provide clues about tear evolution, as well as potential starting points for better eye treatments.
Women are more likely than men to suffer adverse side effects of medications because drug dosages have historically been based on clinical trials conducted on men, suggests new research from the University of California, Berkeley, and the University of Chicago.
African fish called mormyrids communicate using pulses of electricity. New research from biologists in Arts & Sciences shows that a time-shifted signal in the brain helps the fish to ignore their own pulse. This skill has co-evolved with large and rapid changes in these signals across species.
More than 380,000 babies are born prematurely in the United States each year, according to the March of Dimes. 'Preemies' can be severely underweight babies and struggle to get the nutrients they need from breast milk alone, so neonatal intensive care units provide an additional milk fortifier, either in the form of cow's milk or manufactured from donor breast milk, to keep them healthy.
The aim was to reveal the potential of microRNAs in sweat extracellular vesicles in monitoring exercise performance.
Research by INRS (Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique) Professor Salim Timo Islam has revealed that multicellular physiology in the social bacterium Myxococcus xanthus--a bacterium that can actively reorganize its community according to the environment in which it is found--is modulated by the secretion of two natural sugar polymers in separate zones of a swarm. Results from their research, done in collaboration with an international team, have been published in the journal PLOS Biology.
Stimulating the nervous system using small electric current by acupuncture could tamp down systemic inflammation in the body, suggests new research in mice from a team of neuroscientists in the US and China. The research, publishing August 12 in the journal Neuron, helps to map the neuroanatomical underpinnings of this ancient medical practice.
A multicenter study reports that clot perviousness, or permeability - the ability for contrast used during the initial imaging workup to seep through a clot, as estimated by CT imaging - is associated with "first-pass success" in large vessel occlusion (LVO) strokes initially treated with an aspiration thrombectomy approach. LVO stroke treatment success using a stent retriever-first approach to remove the brain vessel blockage was less dependent on clot perviousness.
Scientists have discovered that the larynx, or voice box, of primates is significantly larger relative to body size, has greater variation, and is under faster rates of evolution than in other mammals.
In a laboratory experiment with rats, Brazilian researchers succeeded in reversing natural processes associated with aging that lead to loss of bone density and strength.