Scientists find that black carbon is a good tracer to separate cooking organic aerosol from traffic-related organic aerosol.
Many wild southern sea otters in California are infected with the parasite Toxoplasma gondii, yet the infection is fatal for only a fraction of sea otters, which has long puzzled the scientific community. A study from the University of California, Davis, identifies the parasite's specific strains that are killing southern sea otters, tracing them back to a bobcat and feral domestic cats from nearby watersheds.
In a study published in the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, the UNC scientists found that the lungs of vapers -- like the lungs of smokers -- have elevated levels of protease enzymes, a condition known to cause emphysema in smokers. The researchers also found that the nicotine in vaping liquids is responsible for the increase in protease enzymes.
Scientists have combined analyses from honey and salmon to show how lead from natural and industrial sources gets distributed throughout the environment. By analysing the relative presence of differing lead isotopes in honey and Pacific salmon, Vancouver-based scientists have been able to trace the sources of lead (and other metals) throughout the region. The research is being presented at the Goldschmidt conference in Barcelona.
Cells regularly go through a process called autophagy -- literally translated as 'self-eating' -- which helps to destroy bacteria and viruses after infection. Now new research by the University of Plymouth has shed light on the mechanisms behind autophagy and how it progresses -- particularly relating to a process called liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS).
An international research team led by the University of Goettingen has deciphered the defence mechanism of filamentous fungi. Moulds are a preferred food source for small animals. As fungi cannot escape predation by running away, they produce defence metabolites, thereby rendering themselves toxic or unpalatable. After decades-long unsuccessful investigation, these defence compounds have now been identified. The results were published in Nature Communications.
The discovery could one day let doctors prevent the infection by allowing E. coli to pass harmlessly through the body.
Tiny nanoparticles play a gargantuan role in modern life, but experts have struggled to reach a consensus on the best way to assess and measure them. NIST scientists have concluded that measuring the range of sizes in nanoparticles -- instead of just the average particle size -- is optimal for most applications.
A new study in Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry takes a harder look at the effects a common anti-inflammatory medication and its degradation products have on amphibians. There have been many studies that review the toxicity of naproxen, a common over-the-counter pain reliever, but none until now that have reviewed the effects it or its degradation products might have on amphibians.
Treating cancer more selectively and more effectively -- this could be achieved with an innovative technology developed by teams of researchers at the Leibniz-Forschungsinstitut für Molekulare Pharmakologie (FMP) and the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München (LMU). The process transforms proteins and antibodies into stable, highly functional drug transporters, with which tumor cells can be detected and killed.