Researchers at Duke University have discovered that reducing the use of antibiotics will not be enough to reverse the growing prevalence of antibiotic resistance because bacteria are able to share the ability to fight antibiotics by swapping genes between species. They also show, however, that there are ways to disrupt the gene-sharing process and perhaps reverse antibiotic resistance.
Up to 91 percent of bacterial strains causing a common type of invasive serogroup B meningococcal disease in children and young adults are likely to be covered by a four-component vaccine called MenB-4C (Bexsero), according to laboratory studies conducted by investigators at the federal Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and at GlaxoSmithKline, manufacturers of the vaccine. The work was published this week in mSphere, an open-access journal from the American Society for Microbiology.
A new study demonstrates that outbreaks of mosquito-borne viruses Zika and Chikungunya generally occur about three weeks after heavy rainfall. Researchers also found that Chikungunya will predominate over Zika when both circulate at the same time.
A properly functioning immune system is key to resolve bacterial pneumonia. Researchers from the University Children's Hospital Zurich and UZH working with an international team have now found that specific immune cells are crucial for recovery. The researchers' work paves the way for developing new vaccines, which would also counteract the emerging resistance to antibiotics.
Confirmatory HIV testing can substantially reduce the number of infants in South Africa who may be falsely diagnosed as HIV-infected and started on unneeded treatment, according to a new study published this week in PLOS Medicine by Lorna Dunning of the University of Cape Town, South Africa, and colleagues. Confirmatory testing is recommended by the World Health Organization and South African guidelines, but in many settings, uptake is low.
California researchers have discovered that a medication used to prevent and treat malaria may also be effective for Zika virus. The drug, called chloroquine, has a long history of safe use during pregnancy, and is relatively inexpensive. The research was published today in Scientific Reports.
Scientists have identified a set of biomarkers that indicate which patients infected with the Ebola virus are most at risk of dying from the disease. The results come from one of the most in-depth studies ever of blood samples from patients with Ebola. Researchers found 11 biomarkers that distinguish fatal infections from non-fatal ones and two that, when screened for early upon symptom onset, accurately predict which patients are likely to die.
Scientists have elucidated the Zika burden in a Brazilian metropolis. Their data indicate: the outbreak may be coming to an end and further outbreaks in the region seem unlikely. The study has also provided new evidence supporting the link between Zika infection during pregnancy and malformations in newborns. A third finding is important with regard to intervention measures: Zika virus infection predominantly affects poor regions.
Birth defects in babies born infected with Zika virus remain a major health concern. Now, scientists suggest the possibility that some women in high-risk Zika regions may already be protected and not know it. New research in PLOS Pathogens on Nov. 16, performed in mice, shows women who develop symptom-free Zika infections may be able to acquire immunity that would protect them from future infections and their offspring in a future pregnancy.
In a comprehensive and complex molecular study of blood samples from Ebola patients in Sierra Leone, published today (Nov. 16, 2017) in Cell Host and Microbe, a scientific team led by the University of Wisconsin-Madison has identified signatures of Ebola virus disease that may aid in future treatment efforts.