Scientists discovered that cells can distinguish themselves from closely related competitors through the use of a virus, and the harboring of phage in bacterial genomes benefits host cells when facing competitors in the environment.
Now research conducted in mice offers new hope that neonatal herpes infections might eventually be avoidable by stimulating an immune response in mothers.
New research sheds light on how a hepatitis B viral protein stimulates the expansion of immune cells that impair antiviral responses, according to a study published April 18 in the open-access journal PLOS Pathogens by Haitao Guo of the Indiana University School of Medicine, Bin Wang and Jiming Zhang of Fudan University, and colleagues. The findings potentially explain how the hepatitis B virus (HBV) establishes and maintains chronic infection, and could lead to the development of novel therapeutic strategies.
Scientists report the first cases of foot disease for endangered huemul deer in Chilean Patagonia in a study led by the Wildlife Conservation Society and the University of California, Davis. Culturally iconic, the huemul deer is featured alongside the condor on Chile's coat of arms and is a symbol of biodiversity in the region.
Gene therapy developed at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital has cured infants born with X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID-X1). The children are producing functional immune cells, including T cells, B cells and natural killer (NK) cells, for the first time. The gene therapy involved collecting patients' bone marrow, then using a virus as a vector to insert a correct copy of the IL2RG gene into the genome (DNA) of patients' blood stem cells.
Bacterial cells that normally colonize our guts can distinguish themselves from other bacterial species using what's traditionally considered their enemy -- a virus. Researchers report April 16, 2019, in the journal Cell Reports that some bacteria use viruses that have infected them (i.e., phages) for self-recognition and thereby show greater fitness, repelling competitors that lack this adaptation.
Researchers in Chapel Hill, N.C., and Tokyo have discovered a mechanism by which liver cells intrinsic resistance to diverse RNA viruses is regulated. These results have implications for cellular responses to hepatitis, dengue and Zika.
The increased survival of white blood cells called neutrophils is associated with alterations in the intestinal microbiome of HIV-infected individuals, according to a study published April 11 in the open-access journal PLOS Pathogens by Nichole Klatt of the University of Miami, and colleagues. Moreover, the findings suggest that Lactobacillus bacteria, which are commonly in probiotics, may reduce neutrophil lifespan, and could be an effective therapeutic strategy to reduce intestinal inflammation in HIV-infected individuals.
Findings from a Dartmouth-led study published in the journal Science Translational Medicine, are offering new insights into neonatal herpes, its impact on developing nervous systems, and how newborns can be protected from the disease. In this innovative study, investigators were able to measure not only mortality but also neurological consequences of infection in mice who acquired the virus.
This study shows that, upon HCV infection, mRNA of selenoprotein P (SeP), a secretory protein produced primarily in the liver, binds to and inhibits the action of RIG-I, an antiviral protein, thus regulating innate immunity. RIG-I-mediated induction of interferon production is repressed by SeP mRNA, a host mRNA, affecting its antiviral activity. These results should lead to further elucidation of mechanisms underlying the association between metabolic disorders and virus-induced innate immunity dysfunction.